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Table 5 Mann-Whitney-U-Test post hoc tests, N = 252

From: Emotional distress in the early stages of the COVID-19 related lockdowns depending on the severity of the pandemic and emergency measures: a comparative online-survey in Germany, Austria and Italy

Measures group group p r
STAI State Anxiety Italy Austria < .001 .40
Italy Germany < .001 .49
Austria Germany .696  
PANAS Negative Affect Italy Austria < .001 .56
Italy Germany < .001 .46
Austria Germany .434  
Perceived Severity of COVID-19 Italy Austria .041 .16
  Italy Germany .016 .19
  Austria Germany .723  
Perceived Risk of Disease Italy Austria .042 .16
  Italy Germany .004 .22
  Austria Germany .527  
Emergency measure acceptance Italy Austria < .001 .29
Italy Germany .336  
Austria Germany < .001 .27
Emotional distress due to emergency measures Italy Austria < .001 .60
Italy Germany < .001 .55
Austria Germany .304  
App-Usage Italy Austria < .001 .60
  Italy Germany < .001 .71
  Austria Germany .085  
  1. Effect sizes: r = .10 small, r = .30 medium, r = .50 large (Cohen, 1988)