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Table 2 Reported cases of CsA-related neurotoxicity (excluding PRES) in patients with SRNS

From: First known case of catatonia due to cyclosporine A-related neurotoxicity in a pediatric patient with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

Reference Age (years)/ Gender Renal diagnosis CsA plasma level at time of episode (ng/mL) Other medications at time of episode Neurologic signs/symptoms EEG findings CT/MRI findings
[9] 4/F SRNS MesPGN 132 Not reported Altered conciousness, seizures, cortical blindness n/a MRI: Increased T2 intensity and restricted diffusion on DWI/ADC in P, O, W, G
[9] 11/M SRNS FSGS 141 Not reported Altered conciousness, seizures n/a MRI: Increased T2 intensity and restricted diffusion on DWI/ADC in P, Fr, W
[9] 15/F SRNS IgA nephropathy 263 Not reported Altered conciousness, seizures n/a CT: hypodense zones in P, O
[10] 6.5/F SRNS MCD 172 Prednisolone (35 mg/day) Sodium valproate (1 mg/kg IV per hour) Phenobarbital (10 mg/kg IV) Headache, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, coma Focus of slow paroxysmal activity in posterior right leads CT: normal MRI: contrast enhancement in corticosubcortical areas of P and Fr bilaterally (resolved at 3 month comparison study)
[10] 12/F SRNS MesPGN 203 Prednisolone (60 mg every other day) Headache, confusion, seizures, status epilepticus Slow activity (consistent with therapeutic coma) with left occipital spikes CT: normal MRI: Increased T2 intensity in cortex and cortico-subcortical junction of medial left P and bilateral Fr
[13] 10/M SRNS FSGS 85.55 Prednisone (2 mg/mg/day) Anxiety, tremor, headache, neck pain Normal CT: “small widening sulcus on brain surface”
  1. CsA: cyclosporine A, PRES: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, SRNS: steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, EEG: electroencephalogram, CT: comptuted tomography, MRI: magnetic resonance imaging, MesPGN: mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, T2: T2-weighted imaging, DWI: diffusion-weighted imaging, ADC: apparent diffusion coefficient mapping, P: parietal region, O: occipital region, W: white matter, G: gray matter, FSGS: focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Fr: frontal region, MCD: minimal change disease, IV: intravenous