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Table 2 Definitions of containment methods according to the Attitude to Containment Measures Questionnaire by Bowers et al. (2004) [3]

From: Attitudinal variance among patients, next of kin and health care professionals towards the use of containment measures in three psychiatric hospitals in Switzerland

1 PRN medication Voluntarily accepted medication administered at the nurses’ discretion in addition to regular doses, by any route
2 Physical restraint Physically holding the patient, preventing movement
3 Intermittent observation An increased level of observation, of greater intensity than that which any patient generally receives, coupled with allocation of responsibility to an individual nurse or other worker, periodic checks at intervals
4 Seclusion Isolated in a locked room
5 Time out Patient asked to stay in a room or area for a period of time, without the door being locked
6 IM medication Intramuscular injection of sedating drugs administered without consent
7 PICU Transfer to a specialist locked ward for disturbed patients
8 Mechanical restraint The use of restraining straps, belts or other equipment to restrict movement
9 Constant observation An increased level of observation, of greater intensity than that which any patient generally receives, coupled with allocation of responsibility to an individual nurse or other worker; Constant: within eyesight or arms reach of the observing worker at all times
10 Net bed Patient placed in a net bed enclosed by locked nets, which he or she is unable to leave
11 Open-area seclusion Isolated in a locked area, accompanied by nurses
  1. PRN Pro re nata, PICU Psychiatric intensive care unit, IM Intramuscular