Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Multiple regression analyses (binary, linear) between PHQ-stress and health behavior stratified by sex

From: Psychosocial stress impairs health behavior in patients with mental disorders

  Obesity Uncontrolled eating Smoking Cig/day Physical inactivity
PHQ-stress - Women OR 95% CI Nagelk. R2 OR 95% CI Nagelk. R2 OR 95% CI Nagelk. R2 stand. ß adj. R2 OR 95% CI Nagelk. R2
PHQ-stress scale (0-20) (unadj.) 1.07** 1.03-1.11 2.0 1.18*** 1.14-1.23 13.1 1.05** 1.02-1.08 1.3 n.s.   1.06*** 1.03-1.09 1.9
PHQ-stress scale (0-20) (adjusted) 1.07** 1.03-1.11 11.7 1.17*** 1.12-1.22 18.5 1.03 1.00-1.07 n.s. n.s.   1.05* 1.01-1.08 5.5
PHQ-stress items (dichotomous)
Worries about health (unadj.) n.s.    n.s.    0.77* 0.59-0.83 0.5 n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted n.s.    n.s.    0.77 0.57-1.03 n.s. n.s.   n.s.   
Stress at work or at school (unadj.) n.s.    1.75*** 1.35-2.27 2.2 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted n.s.    1.69*** 1.26-2.27 10.4 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
Worries about weight or look (unadj.) 2.03*** 1.51-2.74 3.0 4.86*** 3.72-6.36 15.9 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted 2.02*** 1.46-2.79 12.6 4.49*** 3.38-5.97 21.7 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
Financial problems or worries (unadj.) 1.78*** 1.30-2.43 1.9 2.15*** 1.65-2.79 3.7 1.85*** 1.43-2.38 2.5 0.10** 0.9 1.48*** 1.22-1.80 1.0
adjusted 1.64** 1.18-2.31 11.3 1.79*** 1.34-2.38 11.0 1.45* 1.08-1.93 14.1 0.09* 1.9 1.34* 1.01-1.77 4.1
Little or no sexual desire (unadj.) n.s.    1.39* 1.06-1.82 0.7 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted n.s.    1.30 0.97-1.74 n.s. n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
Difficulties with partner (unadj.) n.s.    1.59** 1.20-2.10 1.2 1.44** 1.10-1.89 0.8 n.s.   1.40* 1.06-1.85 0.7
adjusted n.s.    1.36 0.99-1.87 n.s. 1.47* 1.08-1.99 14.3 n.s.   1.30 0.97-1.76 n.s.
Thinking/dreaming about sth terrible that happened (unadj.) 1.46* 1.06-2.00 0.8 1.98*** 1.52-2.59 2.9 1.56*** 1.20-2.01 1.3 0.12** 1.2 n.s.   
adjusted 1.37 0.98-1.92 n.s. 1.78*** 1.34-2.37 10.9 1.52** 1.14-2.03 15.0 0.10** 2.7 n.s.   
Having no one to turn to with problems (unadj.) 1.71** 1.24-2.37 1.5 1.96*** 1.49-2.59 2.6 n.s.    n.s.   1.67*** 1.26-2.23 1.5
adjusted 1.55* 1.10-2.19 10.9 1.58** 1.17-2.15 10.1 n.s.    n.s.   1.50** 1.10-2.05 4.9
Something bad that happened recently (unadj.) n.s.    n.s.    1.39* 1.06-1.83 0.6 n.s.   1.33* 1.06-1.66 0.9
adjusted n.s.       1.26 0.91-1.74 n.s. n.s.   1.40* 1.04-1.89 4.5
Stress of care taking (unadj.) 1.46* 1.03-2.07 0.6 1.58** 1.17-2.13 1.0 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted 1.41 0.97-2.06 n.s. 1.57** 1.13-2.18 9.9 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
PHQ-stress - Men OR 95% CI Nagelk. R2 OR 95% CI Nagelk. R2 OR 95% CI Nagelk. R2 stand. ß adj. R2 OR 95% CI Nagelk. R2
PHQ-stress scale (0-20) (unadj.) 1.03 0.99-1.08 n.s. 1.13*** 1.09-1.18 6.7 1.04* 1.00-1.07 0.7 0.12** 1.2 1.07*** 1.04-1.11 2.6
PHQ-stress scale (0-20) (adj.) 1.02 0.98-1.07 n.s. 1.14*** 1.09-1.19 9.3 1.06** 1.02-1.10 19.8 0.10* 5.7 1.06** 1.02-1.10 5.2
PHQ-stress items (dichotomous)
Worries about health (unadj.) n.s.    n.s.    0.69** 0.53-0.89 1.2    1.45** 1.11-1.89 1.1
adjusted n.s.    n.s.    0.73* 0.55-0.98 19.3    1.33* 1.01-1.75 4.4
Stress at work or at school (unadj.) n.s.    1.72** 1.24-2.39 1.7 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted n.s.    1.57** 1.11-2.21 3.9 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
Worries about weight or look (unadj.) 2.89*** 1.99-4.18 5.4 4.27*** 3.05-5.97 10.9 n.s.      n.s.   
adjusted 3.18*** 2.15-4.71 13.8 4.05*** 2.88-5.68 12.8 n.s.      n.s.   
Financial problems or worries (unadj.) 1.57* 1.10-2.24 1.1 1.87*** 1.36-2.57 2.3 2.59*** 1.96-3.43 6.2 0.13*** 1.5 1.49** 1.11-1.99 1.1
adjusted 1.39 0.95-2.04 n.s. 1.75*** 1.26-2.41 4.5 2.25*** 1.63-3.09 22.4 0.12** 6.5 1.30 0.96-1.76 n.s.
Little or no sexual desire (unadj.) n.s.    1.41 0.99-2.01 0.6 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted n.s.    1.37 0.94-1.99 n.s. n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
Difficulties with partner (unadj.) n.s.    n.s.    n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted n.s.    n.s.    n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
Thinking/dreaming about sth terrible that happened (unadj.) n.s.    2.33*** 1.63-3.33 3.3 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted n.s.    2.19*** 1.51-3.17 5.5 n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
Having no one to turn to with problems (unadj.) n.s.    1.76** 1.23-2.51 1.5 n.s.    n.s.   2.02*** 1.42-2.88 2.4
adjusted n.s.    1.6* 1.11-2.31 3.6 n.s.    n.s.   1.87*** 1.30-2.69 5.2
Something bad that happened recently (unadj.) n.s.    n.s.    n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
adjusted n.s.    n.s.    n.s.    n.s.   n.s.   
Stress of care taking (unadj.) n.s.    2.03*** 1.36-3.03 1.9 1.59* 1.10-2.31 0.9 0.09* 0.6 1.72** 1.14-2.60 1.0
adjusted n.s.    2.00*** 1.33-3.03 4.3 1.87** 1.22-2.87 20.2** 0.11* 6.1 1.64* 1.08-2.51 4.2
  1. Each PHQ-stress item was dichotomized in “not or a little bothered (0)” and “bothered a lot (1)”. PHQ-stress scale ranges from 0-20. Logistic Regression analyses are presented unadjusted and adjusted for age, education, vocational training, depression
  2. Analyses concerning obesity (BMI>30) and binge eating were adjusted for obesity of parents. Non-significant results from previous analyses were not considered in regression analyses and marked as n.s. unadj unadjusted. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05. OR Odds Ratio. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) are calculated for OR. Nagelk. R2 = explained variance (in %). Significant results are highlighted in bold