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Table 5 Measurement invariance tests regarding ethnicity, by gender

From: Measurement invariance testing of the PHQ-9 in a multi-ethnic population in Europe: the HELIUS study

  Model Free parameters χ2 (df) RMSEA CFI Reference model ΔRMSEA ΔCFI Difftest
χ2 (df)
Men 1.Configural 198 928.088 (144)* 0.058 (0.054–0.061) 0.990     
2.Metric 158 1274.214 (184)* 0.060 (0.057–0.063) 0.987 1 +0.002 -0.003 349.622 (40)*
3.Strong (scalar) 103 1261.862 (239)* 0.051 (0.048–0.054) 0.987 2 -0.009 0 150.676 (55)*
4.Strict 43 1543.709 (299)* 0.050 (0.048–0.053) 0.985 3 -0.001 -0.002 378.881 (60)*
Women 1.Configural 198 1515.877 (144)* 0.066 (0.063–0.069) 0.987     
2.Metric 158 2236.731 (184)* 0.071 (0.068–0.074) 0.981 1 +0.005 -0.006 681.499 (40)*
3.Strong (scalar) 103 2278.780 (239)* 0.062 (0.060–0.064) 0.981 2 -0.009 0 315.266 (55)*
4.Strict 43 2554.394 (299)* 0.058 (0.056–0.060) 0.979 3 -0.004 -0.002 523.376 (60)*
  1. * Significant χ2 test or χ2 difference test (P < .001) (compared to the reference model)