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Table 10 Sensitivity analyses: model fit in separate groups regarding interview mode and language

From: Measurement invariance testing of the PHQ-9 in a multi-ethnic population in Europe: the HELIUS study

  Free parametersa χ2 (df) RMSEA CFI
Mode effect, total sample:
Interviewer (N = 6097) 33 668.076* 0.066 (0.062–0.071) 0.988
Internet (N = 9904) 33 944.605* 0.062 (0.059–0.066) 0.987
Paper (N = 7181) 33 723.689* 0.064 (0.060–0.068) 0.990
Turks onlya:
Dutch (N = 1874) 33 276.133* 0.075 (0.067–0.083) 0.988
Turkish (N = 894) 33 157.153* 0.079 (0.067–0.091) 0.989
Ghanaians onlya:
Dutch (N = 456) 33 53.541* 0.052 (0.033–0.071) 0.988
English (N = 1581) 33 130.249* 0.053 (0.044–0.062) 0.989
  1. aNumbers slightly differ from the sample size reported in Table 2 since we excluded those for which the questionnaire language was uncertain
  2. * Significant χ2 test or χ2 difference test (P < .001) (compared to the reference model)