Skip to main content

Table 5 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of participants, comparison of samples

From: Quality criteria of involuntary psychiatric admissions - before and after the revision of the civil code in Switzerland

Variable 2012 sample (n = 489) 2013 sample (n = 651) Chi2- Test T-Testa
  n % n % Chi2 df p
  Meana SDa Meana SDa Ta   
Agea 45.58 20.12 48.1 19.40 4.548 1 0.033
Male 269 55.0 333 51.2 1.668 1 0.197
Previous hospitalizationsa 3.67 6.14 4.93 7.72   1 0.003
Day-time admission 258 52.8 361 55.6 0.922 1 0.337
Duration of stay (days)a 21.41 23.84 26.16 27.28   1 0.002
Reason for compulsory admission      10.49 5 0.063
 Self-endangering 407 83.2 542 83.3 0.000 1 0.991
 Endangerment of others 203 41.5 243 37.3 2.055 1 0.152
 Severe self-neglect 49 10.0 101 15.5 7.377 1 0.007
 Stress for their families and friends 38 7.8 53 8.1 0.052 1 0.819
 Clarification, assessment 9 1.8 27 4.1 4.860 1 0.027
Cause of threat
 Disorientation, delirium, dementia 92 18.8 105 16.1 1.408 1 0.235
 Intoxication, substance abuse 159 32.5 215 33.0 0.033 1 0.856
 Psychosis, mania 219 44.8 302 46.4 0.290 1 0.590
 Depression 73 14.9 96 14.7 0.007 1 0.932
 Suicidal tendency, self-injury 195 39.9 227 34.9 3.004 1 0.083
 Aggression 206 42.1 270 41.5 0.049 1 0.825
 Refusal of food intake, medical treatment 97 19.8 158 24.3 3.162 1 0.075
Primary diagnosis      16.906 9 0.050
 organic disorder (F0) 63 13.0 85 13.1
 substance-related disorder (F1) 109 22.5 123 18.9
 schizophrenic disorder (F2) 147 30.3 232 35.6
 affective disorder (F3) 77 15.9 110 16.9
 neurotic disorder (F4) 55 11.3 67 10.3
Seclusion/restraint 84 17.2 124 19.0 0.654 1 0.419
Forced medication 59 12.1 89 13.7 0.637 1 0.425
Monitoring      17.154 4 0.002
 Every hour 10 2.0 33 5.1    
 Every half an hour 26 5.3 36 5.5    
 Every quarter of an hour 22 4.5 33 5.1    
 Permanent supervision 18 3.7 51 7.8    
Appeal 42 8.6 53 8.2 0.069 1 0.793
Discharge from hospital      1.758 4 0.780
 regular discharge 446 91.2 587 90.2    
 against doctor’s orders 11 2.2 23 3.5    
 Escaped 23 4.7 31 4.8    
 release by court decision 6 1.2 7 1.1    
 Others 3 0.6 3 0.5    
  1. df degrees of freedom
  2. aMean, SD (standard deviation), T-Test where indicated