Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Aggregated conflict behaviors and containment event updated annual costs [and original costs (11)]

From: Health service use and costs associated with aggressiveness or agitation and containment in adult psychiatric care: a systematic review of the evidence

Conflict behaviors costs Cost per ward Cost nationally
Verbal abuse, aggression towards objects and physical assault 47,529€ [£37,785] 23,764,980€ [£18,892,816]
Self harm 10,284€ [£8,176] 5,142,434€ [£4,088,161]
Smoking in non-smoking areas or refusing to eat, drink, wash, get up, go to bed or see workers 55,319€ [£43,978] 27,659,246€ [£21,988,701]
Alcohol or drug use 11,565€ [£9,194] 5,782,210€ [£4,596,773]
Attempts to abscond or absconding 31,807€ [£25,286] 15,903,323€ [£12,642,912]
Refused regular or Pro Re Nata medicines or demand of Pro Re Nata medicines 26,112€ [£20,759] 13,055,998€ [£10,379,330]
Cost of all conflict behavior 182,616€ [£145,177] 91,308,194€ [£72,588,694]
Containment events costs Cost per ward Cost nationally
Given Pro Re Nata or intramuscular medicines 28,916€ [£22,988] 14,457,777€ [£11,493,724]
Sent to Intensive Care Unit or Intermediate Care Area 2,549€ [£2,026] 1,274,497€ [£1,013,207]
Intermittent and constant special observation 204,072€ [£162,234] 102,035,487€ [£81,116,737]
Show of force, manual restraint and seclusion 28,518€ [£22,671] 14,259,142€ [£11,335,812]
Time out 3,015€ [£2,397] 1,507,595€ [£1,198,516]
Cost of all containment events 267,069€ [£212,316] 133,534,500€ [£106,157,997]