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Table 4 Substance use Stigma and Gender: A comparison across the various classes of substances

From: Negative attributions towards people with substance use disorders in South Africa: Variation across substances and by gender

AQ-9 items Alcohol Cannabis Methamphetamine Heroin
  Female Male p-value Female Male p-value Female Male p-value Female Male p-value
Pity 5.10 (2.49) 5.02 (2.49) 0.81 5.36 (2.27) 5.46 (2.41) 0.76 5.44 (2.56) 5.13 (2.38) 0.37 5.22 (2.16) 2.29 (0.21) 0.76
Dangerousness 6.71 (2.11) 6.28 (2.08) 0.14 5.96 (2.28) 6.00 (2.15) 0.93 6.26 (2.45) 6.46 (1.92) 0.50 1.96 (0.21) 2.00 (0.19) 0.67
Fear 5.58 (2.60) 5.50 (2.47) 0.80 5.50 (2.45) 5.11 (2.46) 0.24 5.56 (2.36) 5.77 (2.43) 0.54 5.59 (2.08) 5.46 ((2.32) 0.68
Blame 6.04 (2.49) 6.40 (1.97) 0.49 6.17 (2.08) 5.78 (2.15) 0.16 5.91 (2.64) 5.72 (2.41) 0.61 5.88 (2.29) 5.95 (2.32) 0.83
Segregation 5.48 (2.76) 4.93 (2.47) 1.37 5.35 (0.22) 5.21 (0.23) 0.66 5.58 (2.58) 5.22 (2.49) 0.31 5.51 (2.40) 5.63 (2.30) 0.70
Anger 5.97 (2.61) 5.41 (2.40) 0.12 5.76 (2.35) 5.52 (2.37) 0.45 5.11 (2.78) 5.23 (2.49) 0.62 5.51 (2.41) 5.28 (2.22) 0.49
Help 6.29 (2.48) 5.51 (2.46) 0.03* 5.95 (2.30) 5.48 (2.40) 0.14 5.69 (2.32) 5.72 (2.21) 0.92 5.23 (2.31) 2.41 (0.27) 0.34
Avoidance 4.22 (2.67) 4.80 (2.58) 0.12 5.35 (2.26) 5.21 (0.23) 0.02* 5.06 (2.65) 4.67 (2.25) 0.26 5.23 (2.31) 5.00 (2.41) 0.49
Coercion 5.79 (2.36) 6.57 (2.33) 0.02* 4.24 (0.24) 5.01 (0.22) 0.71 6.24 (2.54) 5.55 (2.48) 0.04* 5.57 (2.41) 5.81 (2.27) 0.49