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Table 2 Vulnerability factors for delinquency.

From: The impact of ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood on adult delinquency: A 30 years follow-up study using official crime records

Vulnerability factors N = 541 Non-convicted
N = 410
Convicted
N = 131
Unadjusted Adjusted
   N (%)/Mean(SD) N (%)/Mean (SD) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
Mental health (ICD-10)      
Conduct disorder (F91) 45 20 (44) 25 (56) 3.2 (2.0-4.9)*** 2.0 (1.2-3.4)*
Disturbance of activity and attention/ADHD (F90.0) 40 29 (73) 11 (27) 1.2 (0.7-2.2) -″
Hyperkinetic conduct disorder (F90.1) 46 21 (46) 25 (54) 3.4 (2.2-5.2)*** 2.7 (1.6-4.4)***
Mixed disorder of conduct and emotions (F92) 78 52 (67) 26 (33) 1.6 (1.1-2.5)* ns
Emotional disorder
(F30, F40, F50, F93, F94.0)
121 96 (79) 25 (21) 0.8 (0.5-1.2) -″
Attachment disorder
(F94.1, F94.2)
20 12 (60) 8 (40) 1.9 (0.9-3.9) -″
PDD (F84) 110 103 (94) 7 (6) 0.2 (0.1-0.4)*** 0.4 (0.2-0.9)*
Mental retardation only (F70) 29 28 (97) 1 (3) 0.1 (0.0-0.9)*
Residual disorders (F06, F20, F95, F98.0, F98.1, F98.5) 33 30 (91) 3 (9) 0.3 (0.1-1.0) -″
Z - group diagnoses 19 19 (100) 0 0.1 (0.0-3.4) -″
Sociodemographic variables      
Male gender 366 252 (69) 114 (31) 3. 8 (2.3-6.3)*** 3.6 (2.1-6.1)***
Chronic family difficulties scale   3.8 (SD 1.4) 4.5 (SD 1.4) 1.4 (1.2-1.6)*** 1.3 (1.1-1.5)**
Cognitive level/CGAS      
Mental retardation 170Δ 155 (91) 15 (9) 0.2 (0.1-0.4)*** 0.4 (0.3-0.8)**
CGAS   40.9 (SD 12.2) 41.9 (SD 6.2) 1.0 (0.99-1.02) -″
  1. Prevalence of several vulnerability factors, and Relative Risk (Hazard ratio) estimated by univariate and multivariate Cox Regression for the study population of convicted (n = 131) and not convicted (n = 410) during the follow-up period. Significant Relative Risk are given in bold (* p < 0. 05, ** p <0. 01, *** p <0. 001). Variables obtaining a p-value < 0.05 in the unadjusted analyses were entered into the adjusted analysis.
  2. -″ = The variable was not entered into the multivariate analyses (p > 0.05).
  3. ns = non significant
  4. ▫ = The variable was not entered into the multivariate analysis because of overlapping construct with the MR variable.
  5. Δ = Includes those with mental retardation only.