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Causes, treatment and prevention of suicide

Section edited by Ute Lewitzka

This section will cover all aspects of a wide range of suicidality, considering studies of suicidal behaviour, its causes and effects but also its prevention and intervention approaches. Research which investigates psychological and sociological as well as neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological aspects of suicidal behaviour are also of great interest. The section also incorporates topics such as assessment and risk-management approaches, ethical issues in intervention research, cross-cultural risk factors for suicide as well as the needs of those bereaved by suicide.

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  1. In the Netherlands, suicide rates showed a sharp incline and this pertains particularly to the province of Noord-Brabant, one of the southern provinces in the Netherlands. This calls for a regional suicide pre...

    Authors: Emma Hofstra, Iman Elfeddali, Margot Metz, Marjan Bakker, Jacobus J. de Jong, Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen and Christina M. van der Feltz-Cornelis

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:364

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Losing an only child is a particularly traumatic and heartbreaking event for parents, which can trigger a lot of emotional responses, including PTSD and suicidal ideation (SI). The objectives of this study wer...

    Authors: Qiong Wang, Longfei Ren, Wenhao Wang, Weihua Xu and Yang Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:352

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Many suicide attempters brought to our emergency department (ED) have been found to have alcohol problems, and this should be taken serious consideration because alcohol use disorder is a risk factor for suici...

    Authors: Jinhee Lee, Seongho Min, Joung-Sook Ahn, Hyun Kim, Yong-Sung Cha, Eugene Oh, Jin Sil Moon and Min-Hyuk Kim

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:350

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Suicide and non-fatal self-harm represent key patient safety events in mental healthcare services. However, additional important learning can also be derived by highlighting examples of optimal practice that h...

    Authors: Donna L. Littlewood, Leah Quinlivan, Jane Graney, Louis Appleby, Pauline Turnbull, Roger T. Webb and Navneet Kapur

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:346

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Crisis hotlines play a key role in suicide prevention worldwide following different approaches regarding risk assessment and management of suicidality. This is to our knowledge the first study investigating de...

    Authors: Ines Heinz, Roland Mergl, Ulrich Hegerl, Christine Rummel-Kluge and Elisabeth Kohls

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:342

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Interoceptive deficits have been found to be associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. However, an objective measure of interoceptive accuracy has not been investigated in participants with suicide ideat...

    Authors: Thomas Forkmann, Eftychia Volz-Sidiropoulou, Trientje Helbing, Barbara Drüke, Verena Mainz, Dajana Rath, Siegfried Gauggel and Tobias Teismann

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:334

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Despite decades of research, the rate of death from suicide is rising in the United States. Suicide is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon and, to date, no validated biomarkers that predict suicidal behavi...

    Authors: Allison C. Nugent, Elizabeth D. Ballard, Lawrence T. Park and Carlos A. Zarate Jr

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:332

    Content type: Debate

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  8. Previous research suggests that family caregivers contemplate suicide at a higher rate than the general population. Much of this research has been disease specific and in relatively small samples. This study a...

    Authors: Karlijn J. Joling, Margreet ten Have, Ron de Graaf and Siobhan T. O’Dwyer

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:320

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Self-harm, an act of self-poisoning or self-injury irrespective of motivation, is a major public health concern. Use of alcohol prior to or alongside acts of self-harm is common but little is known about the a...

    Authors: Ambrose J. Melson and Rory C. O’Connor

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:319

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Opposing risks have been identified between different prosocial activities, with volunteering having been linked to better mental health while caregiving has been associated with higher prevalence and incidenc...

    Authors: Michael Rosato, Foteini Tseliou, David M. Wright, Aideen Maguire and Dermot O’Reilly

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:296

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The screening of digital footprint for clinical purposes relies on the capacity of wearable technologies to collect data and extract relevant information’s for patient management. Artificial intelligence (AI) ...

    Authors: Sofian Berrouiguet, María Luisa Barrigón, Jorge Lopez Castroman, Philippe Courtet, Antonio Artés-Rodríguez and Enrique Baca-García

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:277

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Suicide has profound effects on families and communities, but is a statistically rare event. Psychological autopsies using a case-control design allow researchers to examine risk factors for suicide, using a v...

    Authors: E. Arensman, C. Larkin, J. McCarthy, S. Leitao, P. Corcoran, E. Williamson, C. McAuliffe, I. J. Perry, E. Griffin, E. M. Cassidy, C. Bradley, N. Kapur, J. Kinahan, A. Cleary, T. Foster, J. Gallagher…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:275

    Content type: Technical advance

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  13. Diabetes is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease which is prone to more psychiatric complications like suicide; however, research into this area is limited. Assessing suicidal plan and attempt as well a...

    Authors: Mogesie Necho, Solomon Mekonnen, Kelemua Haile, Mengesha Birkie and Asmare Belete

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:258

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Suicide is a serious public health concern. Depression is the main gateway to suicidal behavior. The already established relationship between depression and suicidal risk should now focus on the investigation ...

    Authors: Miquel Roca, Antonio Riera-López del Amo, Pau Riera-Serra, Mª. Angeles Pérez-Ara, Adoración Castro, J. Roman Juan, Mauro García-Toro, Patricia García-Pazo and Margalida Gili

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:253

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Coercive measures is a topic that has long been discussed in the field of psychiatry. Despite global reports of reductions in the use of restraint episodes due to new regulations, it is still questionable if p...

    Authors: Maritta Välimäki, Min Yang, Tero Vahlberg, Tella Lantta, Virve Pekurinen, Minna Anttila and Sharon-Lise Normand

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:230

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Suicidal ideation is an important public health issue due to devastating mortality. In the meantime, interpersonal trust was found to be negatively associated with mental disorder and physical health. Although...

    Authors: Zihang Yu, Lingzhong Xu, Long Sun, Jiao Zhang, Wenzhe Qin, Jiajia Li, Gan Ding, Qian Wang, Jing Zhu and Su Xie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:206

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Worldwide, approximately 800,000 persons die by suicide every year; with rates of suicide attempts estimated to be much higher. Suicidal persons often suffer from a mental disorder but stigma, lack of availabl...

    Authors: Mareike Dreier, Julia Ludwig, Martin Härter, Olaf von dem Knesebeck, Johanna Baumgardt, Thomas Bock, Jörg Dirmaier, Alison J. Kennedy, Susan A. Brumby and Sarah Liebherz

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:152

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Construction workers are at elevated risk of suicide. MATES in Construction (MATES) is one of the few suicide prevention programs that explicitly address this problem. The MATES program includes an integrated ...

    Authors: A. Milner, T. L. King, A. J. Scovelle, P. J. Batterham, B. Kelly, A. D. LaMontagne, S. B. Harvey, J. Gullestrup and C. Lockwood

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:146

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Metabolic disturbances have been correlated with suicidality, but little is known about the association between suicide risk and metabolic disturbances among individuals with depression. This study was to eval...

    Authors: Yue-Jiao Ma, Dong-Fang Wang, Ming Yuan, Xiao-Jie Zhang, Jiang Long, Shu-Bao Chen, Qiu-Xia Wu, Xu-Yi Wang, Marguerite Patel, Christopher D. Verrico, Tie-Qiao Liu and Xiang-Yang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:144

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Suicide is a major public health problem, and it remains unclear which processes link suicidal ideation and plans to the act of suicide. Growing evidence shows that the majority of suicidal patients diagnosed ...

    Authors: J. S. van Bentum, M. Sijbrandij, A. J. F. M. Kerkhof, A. Huisman, A. R. Arntz, E. A. Holmes, G. Franx, J. Mokkenstorm and M. J. H. Huibers

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:143

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Suicidality has been under-researched in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most studies have linked increased suicidality in ASD to psychiatric comorbidities such as depression. Here we investigated, from a neu...

    Authors: Luisa Weiner, Amandine Flin, Jean-Baptiste Causin, Sébastien Weibel and Gilles Bertschy

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:126

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Members of the public can potentially take action to assist someone in their social network who is distressed and at risk of suicide. The present study used data from a community survey to examine training exp...

    Authors: Anthony F. Jorm, Angela Nicholas, Jane Pirkis, Alyssia Rossetto, Julie-Anne Fischer and Nicola J. Reavley

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:68

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Suicide bereavement is a risk factor for adverse outcomes related to grief, social functioning, mental health and suicidal behaviour. Consequently, suicide bereavement support (i.e., postvention) has been iden...

    Authors: Karl Andriessen, Karolina Krysinska, Nicole T. M. Hill, Lennart Reifels, Jo Robinson, Nicola Reavley and Jane Pirkis

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:49

    Content type: Research article

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  24. There is evidence that several intervention types, including psychotherapy, reduce repeat suicide attempts. However, these interventions are less applicable to the heterogeneous patients admitted to emergency ...

    Authors: Masatoshi Inagaki, Yoshitaka Kawashima, Naohiro Yonemoto and Mitsuhiko Yamada

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:44

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Physical illness and mental disorders play a significant role in fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour. However, there is no clear evidence for the effect of physical and mental illness co-occurrence (multimo...

    Authors: Katerina Kavalidouª, Daniel J. Smith, Geoff Der and Rory C. O’Connor

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:38

    Content type: Research article

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  26. There are an estimated 258 million international migrants worldwide. In Asia low-skilled workers often emigrate on a temporary basis (2–3 years) without their families. There is significant concern over the me...

    Authors: Duleeka Knipe, Helen Lambert, Melissa Pearson, Michael Eddleston, Shaluka Jayamanne, Kolitha Wickramage, Keith Hawton, Flemming Konradsen, Chris Metcalfe and David Gunnell

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:25

    Content type: Research article

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  27. For those who have experienced suicidal behaviour, discharge from the hospital emergency department and other acute settings represents a period of heightened vulnerability for future suicide risk. Current gui...

    Authors: Nicole T. M. Hill, Fiona Shand, Michelle Torok, Lyndal Halliday and Nicola J. Reavley

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:6

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Bipolar and other psychiatric disorders are associated with considerably increased risk of suicidal behaviour, which may include self-poisoning with medication used to treat the disorder. Therefore, choice of ...

    Authors: Anne E. Ferrey, Galit Geulayov, Deborah Casey, Claudia Wells, Alice Fuller, Clare Bankhead, Jennifer Ness, Caroline Clements, David Gunnell, Navneet Kapur and Keith Hawton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:399

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Worldwide, the elderly are at a greater risk of suicide than other age groups. There is a paucity of research exploring risk factors for suicide in hospitalized elderly patients. Therefore, a study designed to...

    Authors: Su-Jung Liao, Bo-Jian Wu, Tse-Tsung Liu, Chao-Ping Chou and Jiin-Ru Rong

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:397

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Suicidal ideation and suicidal risk assessment are major concerns for health professionals. The perception of a low level of parental support is a risk factor for suicidal tendencies among adolescents, but lit...

    Authors: Melissa Macalli, Marie Tournier, Cédric Galéra, Ilaria Montagni, Aicha Soumare, Sylvana M. Côté and Christophe Tzourio

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:373

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Suicide is higher among adults with disabilities compared to their counterparts without disabilities and suicide is mostly preceded with suicidal ideations. For each successful suicide, there could be many ide...

    Authors: Angela Kwartemaa Acheampong and Lydia Aziato

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:360

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Recently, suicides in Greece have drawn national and international interest due to the current economic crisis. According to published reports, suicides in Greece have increased up to 40% and Crete has been hi...

    Authors: Maria Basta, Alexandros Vgontzas, Anastasia Kastanaki, Manolis Michalodimitrakis, Katerina Kanaki, Katerina Koutra, Maria Anastasaki and Panagiotis Simos

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:356

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Suicide is a global problem and suicidal behavior is common in acute psychiatric wards. Inpatient suicides regularly occur with 10.4/100,000 such deaths recorded in the UK in 2016. Inpatient suicides are poten...

    Authors: Yvonne F Awenat, Sarah Peters, Patricia A Gooding, Daniel Pratt, Emma Shaw-Núñez, Kamelia Harris and Gillian Haddock

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:334

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) is a relatively new instrument for the assessment of suicidal ideation and behaviour that is widely used in clinical and research settings. The predictive pr...

    Authors: Åsa U. Lindh, Margda Waern, Karin Beckman, Ellinor Salander Renberg, Marie Dahlin and Bo Runeson

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:319

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Suicidal ideation is common in patients suffering from panic disorder. The present study investigated rates of suicidal ideation and risk factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of primary care patients suff...

    Authors: Tobias Teismann, Karoline Lukaschek, Thomas S. Hiller, Jörg Breitbart, Christian Brettschneider, Ulrike Schumacher, Jürgen Margraf and Jochen Gensichen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:305

    Content type: Research article

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  36. This study was designed to assess the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and preliminary psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Future Disposition Inventory-24 (FDI-24) in a lar...

    Authors: Lu Yuan, Dong-Fang Wang, Bob Lew, Augustine Osman and Cun-Xian Jia

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:299

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Previous studies have identified factors associated with admission to hospital after suicide spectrum behaviors. In this study, we aim to identify specific factors associated with psychiatric hospitalization a...

    Authors: Juliette Salles, Julie Calonge, Nicolas Franchitto, Emmanuelle Bougon and Laurent Schmitt

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:287

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Suicide accounts for approximately 1.4% of deaths globally and is the 15th leading cause of death overall. There are no reliable data on the epidemiology of completed suicide in rural areas of many developing ...

    Authors: Mary A. Bitta, Ioannis Bakolis, Symon M. Kariuki, Gideon Nyutu, George Mochama, Graham Thornicroft and Charles R. J. C. Newton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:267

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), which involves self-damaging behavior (e.g., cutting) causes tissue damage and places people at elevated risk for future suicidal behaviors. Yet few specific treatments for NSSI...

    Authors: Jill M. Hooley, Kathryn R. Fox, Shirley B. Wang and Anita N. D. Kwashie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:264

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The internal suicide debate hypothesis assumes that in a suicidal crisis, individuals are involved in an internal struggle over whether to live or die. Reasons for living (RFL) and Reasons for dying (RFD) are ...

    Authors: Juliane Brüdern, Annabarbara Stähli, Anja Gysin-Maillart, Konrad Michel, Thomas Reisch, David A. Jobes and Jeannette Brodbeck

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:234

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone...

    Authors: Gregory Armstrong, Natalie Ironfield, Claire M. Kelly, Katrina Dart, Kerry Arabena, Kathy Bond, Nicola Reavley and Anthony F. Jorm

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:228

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Research on the relationship between insomnia and nightmares, and suicidal ideation (SI) has produced variable findings, especially with regard to military samples. This study investigates whether depression m...

    Authors: J. Don Richardson, Lisa King, Kate St. Cyr, Philippe Shnaider, Maya L. Roth, Felicia Ketcheson, Ken Balderson and Jon D. Elhai

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:204

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Adolescents treated for self-poisoning with medication have a high prevalence of mental health problems and constitute a high-risk population for self-harm repetition. However, little is known about whether th...

    Authors: Ping Qin, Shihua Sun, Anne Seljenes Bøe, Barbara Stanley and Lars Mehlum

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:200

    Content type: Research article

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  44. When a person is in severe distress, people in their social network can potentially take action to reduce the person’s suicide risk. The present study used data from a community survey to examine whether peopl...

    Authors: Anthony F. Jorm, Angela Nicholas, Jane Pirkis, Alyssia Rossetto and Nicola J. Reavley

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:132

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: