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Table 1 Descriptive Statistics and Kruskal-Wallis Tests results for emotional state, coping and COVID-19-scales, N = 4289

From: Emotional distress in the early stages of the COVID-19 related lockdowns depending on the severity of the pandemic and emergency measures: a comparative online-survey in Germany, Austria and Italy

Scales   Italy
(n = 1226)
Austria
(n = 2359)
Germany
(n = 704)
p χ2
STAI State Anxiety M 49.54 43.45 44.50 < .001 407.56
MD 50 42 43   
SD 3.91 11.90 12.15   
PANAS Negative Affect M 26.72 19.88 21.35 < .001 883.94
MD 27 19 20.5   
SD 5.28 6.25 6.62   
SVF78 Positive Stress Behavior M 12.47 18.91 18.95 < .001 2367.44
MD 12.57 19 19.07   
SD 1.21 2.87 2.82   
SVF78 Negative Stress Behavior M 12.93 16.37 16.32 < .001 643.24
MD 13 16.25 16   
SD 1.80 4.57 4.70   
Concerns related to COVID-19 M 27.61 25.22 26.15 < .001 175.28
MD 27 25 26   
SD 3.39 5.67 5.79   
Subsale: Concerns about health M 3.05 2.04 2.17 < .001 445.58
MD 3 2 2   
SD 1.43 .91 3.05   
Subscale: Concerns about financial problems M 3.91 2.12 2.17 < .001 1346.57
MD 4 2 2   
SD 1.06 1.14 1.19   
Subscale: Concerns about the economic impact M 3.69 3.22 3.36 < .001 151.34
MD 4 3 3   
SD 1.23 1.16 1.16   
Perceived Severity of COVID-19 M 8.65 8.06 8.00 < .001 151.95
MD 9 8 9   
SD 1.31 1.47 1.57   
Perceived Risk of Disease M 8.22 8.59 9.18 < .001 72.28
MD 8 8 9   
SD 2.24 2.36 2.33   
Emergency measure acceptance M 69.50 70.43 67.99 < .001 205.17
MD 71 73 71   
SD 4.72 6.43 8.29   
Emotional distress due to emergency measures M 21.63 13.86 15.46 < .001 1352.07
MD 20 12 13   
SD 6.60 4.94 6.68   
App-Usage M 1.06 .34 .27 < .001 1324.43
MD 1 0 0   
SD .65 .64 .62