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Table 3 Factor loadings of the MHLS in the CFA stage

From: A modified version of the mental health literacy scale (MHLS) in Iranian people

Attributes Items Factor loadings
Ability to recognize disorders (AR1-AR 8) 1. If someone gets very anxious and nervous in one or more situations in front of other people, for example at a party or when he has to do something (such as giving a speech in a meeting), in which they were afraid of others or feel ashamed, how much do you think that person has Social Phobia. 0.468
2. If a person is very worried about several events and activities, where this level of concern was not warranted, cannot control this worry, and had physical symptoms (such as muscle cramps and feeling tired), how much do you think this person has a Generalized Anxiety Disorder. 0.537
3. If a person had a low mood for two or more weeks, not interested in normal and daily activities, and feels changes in his appetite and sleep, how much do you think this person has Major Depressive Disorder. 0.519
4. To what extent do you think Personality Disorders can be classified as a mental illness. 0.615
5. How likely do you think Dysthymia is a disorder. 0.531
6. To what extent do you think being anxious in situations and places where escaping is difficult or embarrassing can be diagnosed as a “Agoraphobia”. 0.575
7. How likely do you think the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder includes experiencing a period of happy mood and periods of sad mood (depression) by someone. 0.433
8. To what extent do you think physical and psychological tolerance for drugs (need for more substances to maintain its effect on the body) may be identified as drug dependence and addiction. 0.494
Knowledge of risk factors and causes (RF1,RF2) 1. In general, to what extent do you think women in Iran may be more experience any mental illness than men. 0.422
2. In general, to what extent do you think men in Iran may be more experience anxiety disorders more than women. 0.270
Knowledge of self-treatment (ST1,ST2) 1. If someone has difficulty managing their emotions (for example, becoming very anxious or depressed), how much do you think improving their sleep quality can be beneficial to them? 0.754
2. If someone has difficulty managing their emotions (for example, becoming very anxious or depressed), how much do you think avoiding all activities or situations that made them feel anxious can be beneficial to them. 0.521
Knowledge of the professional help available (PH1-PH3) 1. In your opinion, it is likely that that Cognitive Behavior Therapy is a therapy based on challenging negative thoughts and increasing helpful behaviors. 0.575
2. Mental health professionals are bound by confidentiality; however, there are certain conditions under which this does not apply.
To what extent do you think it is likely that the following is a condition that would allow a mental health professional to break confidentiality:
-If you are at risk of harming yourself or others, how likely do you think a Mental health professional will reveal your secrets to others?
0.731
3. Mental health professionals are bound by confidentiality; however, there are certain conditions under which this does not apply.
To what extent do you think it is likely that the following is a condition that would allow a mental health professional to break confidentiality:
-If your problem does not a serious threat to your life and Mental health professionals want to get assist others to better support you, how likely do you think a Mental health professional will tell your secrets to others?
0.354
Knowledge of where to seek information (SI1-SI4) 1. I’m sure I know where to look for information about mental disorders. 0.639
2. I’m sure I can use computers and telephones to seek information about mental disorders. 0.699
3. I’m sure attending face to face meeting to seek information about mental disorders (e.g., seeing the general practitioner, psychologist). 0.307
4. I am confident that I have access to resources such as the Internet, general practitioner, friends, etc. to seek information about mental disorders. 0.592
Attitudes that promote the recognition or appropriate help-seeking behavior(A1-A10) 1. People with mental disorders are dangerous. 0.355
2. It is best to avoid people with a mental disorder so that you don’t develop this problem 0.344
3. If I have a mental disorder, I do not like to tell anyone. 0.310
4. How much do you want to move next door to someone with a mental illness? 0.807
5. How much do you want to spend the night with someone who has a mental disorder? 0.850
6. How much do you want to be friends with someone who has a mental disorder? 0.887
7. How much do you want to start working with someone who has a mental disorder? 0.826
8. How much do you want to have someone with a mental illness marry into your family? 0.555
9. How much do you want to vote for a politician who suffering from a mental illness? 0.410
10. How much do you want to employ someone with a mental illness? 0.613
➢ People with a mental disorder could stop their behaviors if they wanted. Deleted
➢ A mental disorder is a sign of personality weakness. Deleted
➢ A mental disorder is not a real medical disease. Deleted
➢ If I have a mental disorder, I do not like to seek help from a mental health professional (e.g., psychologist/psychiatrist). Deleted
➢ I believe that the treatment of mental disorders by a mental health professional (e.g., psychologist/psychiatrist) is ineffectiveness. Deleted
➢ Refer to a psychologist means that you do not have enough power to manage and solve your problem. Deleted