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Table 1 Characteristics of the Intervention group, Control group and Total group1 at baseline. Mean (SD) unless noted otherwise

From: EFFORT-D: results of a randomised controlled trial testing the EFFect of running therapy on depression

  Intervention group (n = 24) Control group (n = 22) Total group (n = 46) Chi-square (χ2) Anova (F) Fisher’s exact (Fe)
Age, yrs. 42.2 (9.3) 40.1 (9.0) 41.2 (9.1) F = .60
Sex, women % 79.2 40.9 60.9 χ2 = 7.05**
Education2, n 17 19 36  
 Low % 18 26 22 Fe = .75
 Middle % 47 53 50  
 High % 35 21 28  
 Hamilton-D173 20.1 (5.2) 24.3 (5.4) 22.1 (5.6) F = 7.33*
 Fitness parameters4, n 24 20 44  
 Wmax, Watt∙kg− 1 3.85 (.66) 3.91 (.65) 3.88 (.64) F = 4.43*
 VO2max, ml∙min−1∙kg− 1 29.1 (6.9) 35.7 (6.0) 31.6 (7.1) F = 5.85*
 Heartbeat at rest, b∙min−1 75.7 (12.3) 80.0 (16.0) 77.7 (12.2) F = 1.10
 Grip strength5, kg, n 18 16 34  
 Left 31.3 (13.2) 33.6 (11.9) 32.4 (12.5) F = .29
 Right 33.1 (16.6) 38.6 (15.1) 35.4 (15.8) F = .84
Body composition, n 24 22 46  
 BMI 28.8 (5.9) 27.3 (6.1) 28.1 (6.0) F = .70
 Fat Free Mass, kg 51.2 (11.9) 58.5 (13.1) 54.7 (12.8) F = 3.87
 Muscle Mass, kg 27.0 (4.5) 31.1 (4.8) 29.0 (5.0) F = 8.41*
 Visceral Fat, kg 8.3 (2.8) 8.6 (4.5) 8.4 (3.6) F = .08
 Waist circumference, cm 98.3 (13.5) 97.4 (15.2) 97.9 (14.2) F = .05
 Blood pressure, n 24 22 46  
 Systolic, mmHg 143.4 (24.2) 143.0 (17.1) 143.2 (20.9) F = .00
 Diastolic, mmHg 88.9 (12.5) 88.0 (9.6) 88.5 (11.1) F = .07
Blood parameters6, n 18 10 28  
 Fasting blood glucose, mmol∙l−1 4.9 (.44) 5.1 (.56) 5.0 (.48) F = .598
 Cholesterol, mmol∙l−1 5.1 (.68) 5.8 (1.33) 5.3 (.99) F = 2.99
 HDL Cholesterol, mmol∙l−1 1.33 (.36) 1.55 (1.04) 1.41 (.67) F = .67
 Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol, mmol∙l−1 4.0 (.98) 4.7 (1.1) 4.4 (1.8) F = 2.43
 Triglycerides, mmol∙l−1 1.46 (.94) 1.8 (1.17) 1.5 (1.0) F = .693
Anxiety: BAI7, n 10 11 21  
18.5 (10.8) 28.5 (13.1) 23.7 (12.8) F = 3.59
Pain: GCPS8, n 11 11 22 Fe = .58
 A 2 1 3  
 B 6 7 13  
 C 3 3 6  
Pain medication % 64 72 68 F = .65
Quality of Life: EQ5-D9, n 17 21 38  
37.5 (20.3) 29.7 (16.3) 33.2 (18.4) F = 1.71
Costs: TIC-P10, n 19 21 40  
 Contact GP last 6 weeks % 58 95 77 Fe = .007**
 Work Sickness leave < 1 month % 85 85 85 Fe = .70
 Work Sickness leave > 1 month % 54 54 54 Fe = .65
 Housework disability % 71 77 74 Fe = .66
 Housework help needed % 47 61 54 Fe = .52
Medication, n 24 22 46  
 Antidepressant % 74 86 72 Fe = .44
 Benzodiazepines % 42 68 50 Fe = .12
 Mood stabilizer % 16 4 10 Fe = .32
 Antipsychotic % 16 23 19 Fe = .70
 Somatic medication % 31 45 39 Fe = .52
Duration antidepressant before inclusion     Fe = 1.0
 0–3 months % 36 43 39  
 3–6 months % 50 47 48  
  > 6 months % 14 10 13  
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 (2-tailed test)
  2. 1 45% inpatients (17% emergency ward, 28% day-hospital), 55% outpatients
  3. 2 Missing questionnaires n = 10
  4. 3 14–18: moderate depression, 19–27: severe depression, > 27: very severe depression
  5. 4 Two participants in the control group with physical problems during the bicycle test
  6. 5 Missing n = 12: Mechanical defect grip strength meter
  7. 6 Missing n = 22: No show at blood lab
  8. 7 Beck Anxiety Index, Missing n = 25; 16–26 moderate-severe anxiety, > 26 = severe anxiety
  9. 8 Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Missing n = 24; Pain in body parts max = 7: A = 0–3, B = 3–5, C = 5–7
  10. 9 Euroquol 5-D, Missing n = 8. Subjective Health (1–100 scale, 100 = optimal)
  11. 10 Trimbos/iMTA Costs Associated with Psychiatric Illness, Missing n = 6