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Table 4 Mean differences in attitudes of different containment methods among the three study sites, separated by the participating groups

From: Attitudinal variance among patients, next of kin and health care professionals towards the use of containment measures in three psychiatric hospitals in Switzerland

  Total Muensingen Zurich Monthey F (df) p eta squared
Patients M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
1 PRN (as-needed) medication 1.81 (0.98) 1.94 (1.00) a 2.17 (1.17) c 1.58 (0.79) 14.48 (2407) 0.000 0.066
3 Intermittent observation 2.04 (1.00) 2.21 (1.07) a 2.29 (1.14) c 1.84 (0.84) 9.32 (2407) 0.000 0.044
5 Time out 2.35 (1.12) 2.38 (1.05) 2.36 (1.11) 2.33 (1.17) 0.10 (2411) 0.908  
9 Constant observation 2.38 (1.07) 2.40 (1.09) 2.45 (1.13) 3.35 (1.03) 0.36 (2410) 0.701  
7 PICU 2.67 (1.21) 2.46 (1.07) 2.54 (1.19) 2.82 (1.27) 3.64 (2408) 0.027 0.018
11 Open-area seclusion 2.53 (1.10) 2.48 (1.14) 2.60 (1.20) 2.51 (1.04) 0.30 (2407) 0.738  
2 Physical restraint 2.73 (1.27) 3.04 (1.28) a 2.91 (1.32) c 2.52 (1.21) 7.11 (2412) 0.001 0.033
6 IM medication 3.06 (1.34) 3.29 (1.30) a 3.46 (1.40) c 2.77 (1.26) 11.57 (2410) 0.000 0.053
4 Seclusion 3.04 (1.30) 2.89 (1.23) 2.80 (1.40) c 3.22 (1.26) 4.44 (2412) 0.012 0.021
8 Mechanical restraint 3.49 (1.28) 3.46 (1.26) 3.68 (1.33) 3.41 (1.25) 1.55 (2407) 0.214  
10 Net bed 4.08 (1.12) 3.98 (1.14) 4.18 (1.18) 4.08 (1.09) 0.76 (2407) 0.468  
NOK
 1 PRN (as-needed) medication 1.85 (0.86) 1.91 (0.85) 2.02 (0.93) c 1.57 (0.75) 3.86 (2176) 0.023 0.042
 3 Intermittent observation 1.69 (0.64) 1.66 (0.64) 1.85 (0.57) 1.54 (0.69) 3.00 (2176) 0.052  
 5 Time out 2.06 (0.81) 1.89 (0.68) a 2.04 (0.73) 2.37 (1.00) 5.52 (2176) 0.005 0.059
 9 Constant observation 1.98 (0.84) 1.99 (0.89) 2.08 (0.81) 1.87 (0.79) 0.75 (2175) 0.473  
 7 PICU 3.58 (1.17) 3.36 (1.23) a 3.62 (1.04) c 3.91 (1.15) 19.79 (2177) 0.000 0.183
 11 Open-area seclusion 2.15 (0.81) 1.96 (0.72) a 2.11 (0.67) c 2.50 (0.98) 6.96 (2176) 0.001 0.073
 2 Physical restraint 2.59 (1.00) 2.51 (1.02) 2.66 (1.00) 2.65 (0.97) 0.459 (2176) 0.633  
 6 IM medication 2.71 (1.04) 2.73 (1.14) 2.77 (0.99) 2.62 (0.92) 0.29 (2177) 0.746  
 4 Seclusion 3.02 (1.09) 2.65 (0.98) a 3.00 (1.02) c 3.68 (1.05) 15.45 (2177) 0.000 0.149
 8 Mechanical restraint 3.58 (1.17) 2.36 (1.23) a 3.62 (1.04) 3.91 (1.15) 3.37 (2176) 0.037 0.037
 10 Net bed 3.91 (1.03) 3.65 (1.08) a 4.04 (0.90) c 4.21 (1.00) 5.29 (2176) 0.006 0.057
HCP
 1 PRN (as-needed) medication 1.30 (0.52) 1.30 (0.48) 1.45 (0.60) c 1.17 (0.44) 8.51 (2361) 0.000 0.045
 3 Intermittent observation 1.36 (0.60) 1.34 (0.54) 1.38 (0.66) 1.38 (0.66) 0.246 (2361) 0.782  
 5 Time out 1.66 (0.77) 1.41 (0.60) a 1.62 (0.75) c 2.02 (0.86) 21.46 (2361) 0.000 0.106
 9 Constant observation 1.72 (0.80) 1.66 (0.82) 1.77 (0.81) 1.73 (0.77) 0.56 (2361) 0.571  
 7 PICU 2.29 (1.14) 2.06 (0.95) a,b 1.70 (0.73) c 3.19 (1.17) 72.63 (2360) 0.000 0.287
 11 Open-area seclusion 2.48 (1.13) 2.05 (0.94) a,b 2.58 (1.15) c 2.93 (1.14) 21.78 (2359) 0.000 0.108
 2 Physical restraint 2.12 (0.90) 2.38 (0.98) a,b 2.06 (0.80) 1.85 (0.82) 11.42 (2360) 0.000 0.060
 6 IM medication 2.03 (0.77) 2.12 (0.72) a 2.22 (0.82) c 1.70 (0.68) 15.41 (2359) 0.000 0.079
 4 Seclusion 2.47 (1.15) 1.89 (0.73) a 2.00 (0.71) c 3.72 (0.99) 184.99 (2361) 0.000 0.506
 8 Mechanical restraint 3.31 (1.18) 2.61 (0.93) a 2.72 (0.98) c 4.24 (0.88) 110.62 (2361) 0.000 0.380
 10 Net bed 4.22 (0.95) 3.97 (1.07) a 4.03 (0.86) c 4.76 (0.56) 29.34 (2361) 0.000 0.140
  1. PRN Pro re nata, PICU Psychiatric intensive care unit, IM Intramuscular, NOK Next-of-kin, HCP Healthcare professionals
  2. aMuensingen vs. Monthey, p < 0.05, Sidac post-hoc
  3. bMuensingen vs. Zurich, p < 0.05, Sidac post-hoc
  4. cMonthey vs. Zurich, p < 0.05, Sidac post-hoc