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Table 4 Health-related correlates in participants with and without 12-month MDD in 1997–19991 and 2009–20122

From: Time trends in depression prevalence and health-related correlates: results from population-based surveys in Germany 1997–1999 vs. 2009–2012

  Men Women
With MDD Without MDD With MDD Without MDD
1997–1999 (n = 110) 2009–2012 (n = 71) 1997–1999 (n = 1801) 2009–2012 (n = 1451) 1997–1999 (n = 238) 2009–2012 (n = 159) 1997–1999 (n = 2027) 2009–2012 (n = 1584)
Fair/poor self-rated health, % (95%-CI) 36.8 (26.7–48.3) 37.1 (24.6–51.6) 13.9 (12.0–16.1) 10.1 (8.3–12.3) 40.4 (32.7–48.5) 21.3 (13.9–31.2) 14.6 (12.7–16.6) 10.9 (9.2–13.0)
Health-related quality of life (4 weeks)3, mean (95%-CI)
 Physical functioning 50.3 (48.4–52.1) 48.8 (46.0–51.6) 52.9 (52.5–53.3) 53.6 (53.2–54.0) 47.8 (46.3–49.3) 49.3 (46.9–51.7) 51.6 (51.1–52.0) 52.5 (52.1–52.9)
 Physical role functioning 47.4 (44.8–50.0) 43.1 (39.6–46.6) 52.8 (52.3–53.2) 52.2 (51.7–52.7) 46.5 (44.7–48.2) 46.6 (44.4–48.9) 51.6 (51.2–52.1) 50.7 (50.2–51.2)
 Bodily pain 45.1 (42.6–47.5) 43.4 (40.0–46.7) 51.1 (50.4–51.7) 54.1 (53.4–54.8) 41.8 (39.8–43.8) 47.9 (45.3–50.6) 48.0 (47.4–48.6) 51.3 (50.6–52.0)
 General health 42.8 (41.0–44.6) 42.2 (39.3–45.1) 49.0 (48.5–49.4) 50.6 (50.0–51.2) 43.2 (41.4–44.9) 45.4 (43.3–47.5) 49.1 (48.6–49.7) 50.5 (50.1–51.0)
 Vitality 45.3 (43.2–47.4) 43.1 (39.8–46.3) 52.9 (52.4–53.3) 53.1 (52.6–53.6) 43.0 (41.7–44.3) 43.7 (41.2–46.2) 50.8 (50.3–51.3) 51.2 (50.7–51.8)
 Social role functioning 44.0 (41.7–46.3) 39.6 (36.0–43.2) 52.6 (52.2–53.0) 52.4 (51.9–52.9) 41.4 (39.4–43.4) 41.6 (39.2–44.1) 51.1 (50.6–51.6) 50.9 (50.4–51.5)
 Emotional role functioning 44.6 (41.5–47.7) 36.3 (32.4–40.1) 52.9 (52.5–53.2) 51.6 (51.1–52.1) 43.1 (40.9–45.3) 40.4 (37.3–43.5) 52.0 (51.6–52.5) 49.4 (48.7–50.0)
 Mental health 39.0 (36.9–41.1) 37.0 (34.1–39.8) 50.2 (49.8–50.7) 50.8 (50.2–51.3) 36.8 (35.0–38.6) 38.7 (36.7–40.8) 47.6 (47.1–48.2) 48.6 (48.0–49.2)
Physical component score 49.2 (47.1–51.2) 48.4 (45.3–51.5) 51.8 (51.3–52.3) 53.4 (52.8–53.9) 47.6 (45.9–49.4) 51.4 (49.2–53.6) 50.6 (50.1–51.1) 52.3 (51.9–52.8)
Mental component score 40.5 (38.0–42.9) 35.3 (32.0–38.5) 51.6 (51.2–52.0) 50.9 (50.4–51.5) 38.5 (36.5–40.4) 37.2 (34.5–40.0) 49.8 (49.3–50.4) 48.9 (48.3–49.5)
Any days with activity limitation (4 weeks), % (95%-CI)
 due to mental health problems 9.1 (4.9–16.5) 25.9 (14.8–41.3) 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 1.7 (1.0–3.0) 5.9 (3.1–10.8) 29.0 (19.3–41.0) 1.6 (1.0–2.6) 3.7 (2.6–5.2)
 due to physical health problems 21.0 (13.4–31.2) 26.7 (16.3–40.5) 14.0 (11.8–16.4) 12.7 (10.6–15.2) 20.0 (14.6–26.7) 26.5 (17.8–37.6) 14.6 (12.8–16.7) 13.6 (11.5–16.0)
Any sick days (12 month), % (95%-CI) 69.3 (57.6–79.0) 74.5 (59.6–85.2) 49.9 (47.0–52.8) 59.5 (56.0–62.9) 68.1 (60.4–74.9) 76.5 (65.6–84.7) 55.4 (52.5–58.1) 63.8 (60.7–66.8)
No. of sick days if any4, mean (95%CI) 62.8 (38.0–87.6) 62.4 (24.9–100.0) 25.0 (20.5–29.5) 19.7 (16.3–23.0) 39.6 (27.4–51.8) 26.2 (16.6–35.9) 19.6 (17.4–21.7) 19.1 (15.1–23.1)
  1. Bold type indicates significant differences between 1997–1999 and 2009–2012 (local significance level α = 0.05; see Table 5)
  2. 1German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, mental health supplement (GHS-MHS, 1997–1999): weighted for population structure as of 12/31/1997; age range: 18–65
  3. 2German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, mental health module (DEGS1-MH, 2009–2012): weighted for population structure as of 12/31/2010; age range: 18–65
  4. 3SF-36: Norm-based scoring
  5. 4In GHS-MHS n = 77 men and n = 166 women with MDD and n = 895 men and n = 1110 women without MDD reported any sick days in the last 12 months; in DEGS1-MH n = 49 men and n = 117 women with MDD and n = 828 men and n = 961 women without MDD reported any sick days in the last 12 months