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Table 1 Characteristics of original studies included in review

From: Suicide and deliberate self-harm in Pakistan: a scoping review

Author / Year Study Design Setting (City, Province) Studies reporting on Number of suicidal cases Male to female ratio Age of the study population Method (three most common) Psychiatric Diagnosis (% of sample)
Jamil et al. (1977) [56] Retrospective case series (1976) Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deathsa 35 out of 53 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Jamil et al. (1977) [40] Retrospective case series (1976) Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deaths 96 out of 157 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Ahmed et al. (1981) [57] Retrospective case series (1974–1978) Karachi, Sindh Suicide & DSH 25 suicide
167 DSH
Suicide-1.27: 1
DSH- 5.8: 1
Suicide: 11–20 yrs.: 64%
DSH:
21–20 yrs.: 50%
Suicide: drugs, poisons, sharp instruments
DSH: drugs, poisons, sharp instruments
Suicide: 8%
DSH: 1%
Noor et al. (1988) [58] Retrospective case series (1984–1987) Multan, Punjab Unnatural deaths 20 out of 112 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Jamil et al. (1990) [59] Retrospective case series (1976–1985) Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deaths 1330 out of 1900 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Javed et al. (1996) [24] Cross-sectional (1992) Lahore, Punjab Suicidal ideation 27 out of 60 0.66: 1 N/A N/A N/A
Khan et al. (1996) [60] Retrospective case series (1989–1992) Karachi, Sindh DSH 314 0.69:1 <30 yrs.: 71% Poisoning, hanging, wrist slashing 31% affective disorder
6% schizophrenia
Khan et al. (1996) [25] Retrospective case series (1989–1993) Karachi, Sindh DSH 382 0.69:1 <30 yrs.: 69% Poisoning N/A
Waseem et al. (1997) [61] Prospective case series (1996) Lahore, Punjab Suicide 20 1.85: 1 N/A Poisoning N/A
Khan et al. (1998) [39] Retrospective case series (1989–1994) Karachi, Sindh DSH 447 0.69:1 <30 yrs.: 62% Poisoning 14%
Aziz et al. (1999) [62] Retrospective case series (1993 & 1995) Lahore, Punjab Suicide 96 1.43: 1 20–30 yrs.: 49% Hanging, firearms, burning 15%
Malik et al. (1999) [26] Retrospective case series (1984–1996) Lahore, Punjab Unnatural deaths 2 out of 837 1:1 N/A Cutting N/A
Bashir et al. (2000) [63] Retrospective case series (1994–1999) Lahore, Punjab Unnatural deaths 45 out of 91 N/A N/A Hanging N/A
Rana et al. (2000) [64] Retrospective case series (1984–1988) Lahore, Punjab Unnatural deaths 21 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Khalid et al. (2000) [65] Retrospective case series (1997–2001) Karachi, Sindh Suicide 1230 2.19: 1 21–30 yrs.: 47.21% Gunshot, hanging, poisoning 9% males
5% females
Khan et al. (2000) [66] Retrospective case series (1996–1997) Karachi, Sindh Suicide 306 2.1: 1 <30 yrs.: 82% Poisoning, hanging, firearms 3%
Bunggush et al. (2000) [67] Retrospective case series Pakistan Unnatural deaths 243 out of 408 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Haider et al. (2001) [30] Cross-sectional (2000) Lahore, Punjab DSH 100 0.67:1 15–24 yrs.: 36% Poisoning 34%
Agha et al. (2001) [68] Case-control (1999) Karachi, Sindh DSH Case: 72
Control: 72
Case: 1:1
Control: 1:1
Mean age in both: 20–29 yrs Benzodiazepines 100% in case group
Khan et al. (2001) [69] Case-control (1998) Peshawar, KPK Suicidal ideation 4 out of 50 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Ghazanfar et al. (2001) [70] Retrospective case series (2006–2008) Rawalpindi, Punjab Unnatural deaths 27 out of 91 1.7: 1 N/A Organophosphorus poisoning N/A
Haider et al. (2002) [31] Cross-sectional (2000) Lahore, Punjab DSH 385 0.81: 1 15–35 yrs.: 66% Poisoning, cutting, firearms 52%
Ahmad et al. (2002) [71] Cross-sectional (1996–2000) Multan, Punjab Unnatural deaths 193 out of 370 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Haider et al. (2002) [50] Cross-sectional (2002) Lahore, Punjab DSH 147 0.88: 1 Mean age (males): 30.5 yrs.
Mean age (females):
29.4 yrs
Poisoning 71%
Sultana et al. (2002) [72] Retrospective case series Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deaths 51 out of 632 N/A N/A Hanging, drowning, cutting N/A
Hasan et al. (2002) [73] Retrospective case series (1998–2001) Rawalpindi, Punjab Unnatural deaths 101 out of 181 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Saeed et al. (2002) [74] Retrospective case series (1998–2001) Faisalabad, Punjab Suicide 95 2.44: 1 20–29 yrs.: 43.1% Hanging, Firearms, poisoning N/A
Khan et al. (2003) [75] Retrospective case series (2001) Quetta, Baluchistan DSH 46 100% females 16–25 yrs.: 65.2% Poisoning 78%
Ali et al. (2003) [76] Retrospective case series (2001) Peshawar, KPK Unnatural deaths 2 out of 679 100% females N/A Firearms, sharp weapons, N/A
Ali et al. (2003) [77] Retrospective case series (1997–2001) Peshawar, KPK Unnatural deaths 9 out of 52 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Ahmed et al. (2003) [21] Retrospective case series (1995–2001) Karachi, Sindh Suicide 1379 1.7: 1 21–30 yrs.: highest Poisoning, hanging, firearms N/A
Bashir (2003) [22] Retrospective case series (1991–2000) Peshawar, KPK Suicide 39 2.9: 1 20–29 yrs.: highest Firearms, hanging N/A
Safdar et al. (2003) [78] Retrospective case series Sukkur, Sindh Unnatural deaths 14 out of 26 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Farooqi (2004) [79] Cross-sectional (2003) Lahore, Punjab Suicidal ideation 50 out of 100 1.5: 1 N/A N/A 40% depression
24% schizophrenia
Valika et al. (2004) [80] Cross-sectional (2003) Pakistan Suicidal behavior 19 1: 0.88 N/A Poisoning N/A
Farooqi et al. (2004) [81] Cross-sectional (2003) Karachi, Sindh DSH 50 1.5: 1 11–20 yrs.: 40% Poisoning N/A
Waseem et al. (2004) [82] Prospective case series (2003–2004) Lahore, Punjab Unnatural deaths 31 out of 70 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Shoaib et al. (2005) [34] Prospective case series (2004) Lahore, Punjab Suicide & DSH 107 1.22:1 21–30 yrs.: 49% Poisoning 9%
Khoker et al. (2005) [83] Cross-sectional (2004) Karachi, Sindh Suicidal ideation 68 out of 217 0.87:1 N/A N/A N/A
Hussain et al. (2005) [37] Retrospective case series (1996–2002) Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deaths 40 out of 50 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Asif et al. (2005) [32] Cross-sectional (2004) Lahore, Punjab DSH 1390 2.22: 1 21–30 yrs.: 36% Poisoning N/A
Rasheed et al. (2005) [29] Prospective case series (2004) Rawalpindi, Punjab Suicidal ideation Under-trial prisoners: significant relationship with suicidal behavior 100% males N/A N/A N/A
Kermani et al. (2006) [84] Retrospective case series (2004) Karachi, Sindh DSH 150 0.75: 1 21–25 yrs.: 41% Poisoning N/A
Aziz (2006) et al. [85] Cross-sectional (2002–2004) Larkana, Sindh Suicide 52 2.03: 1 30–39 yrs.: 44.2% Firearms, hanging, burning 73%
Khan (2006) [10] Retrospective case series (1985–1999) Karachi, Sindh Suicide 2568 2.78: 1 N/A Poisoning, hanging & drowning N/A
Suliman et al. (2006) [86] Prospective case series (2002–2003) Bahawalpur, Punjab Unnatural deaths 111 out of 143 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Tahir et al. (2006) [54] Prospective case series (2003–2004) Sukkar, Sindh Unnatural deaths 17 out of 24 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Rathore et al. (2007) [87] Prospective case series (2006–2007) Lahore, Punjab Suicide & DSH 50 1.27: 1 21–30 yrs.: 44% Poisoning N/A
Ahmad et al. (2007) [88] Prospective case series (2002–2003) Islamabad, Punjab Unnatural deaths 9 out of 142 N/A N/A Burns N/A
Shaikh et al. (2008) [23] Retrospective case series Hyderabad, Sindh Unnatural deaths 99 out of 111 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Raja et al. (2008) [48] Cross-sectional (2007) Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deaths 9539 out of 27,254 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Babar et al. (2008) [35] Retrospective case series (2002) Islamabad, Punjab Suicide 227 2.3: 1 25–45 yrs.: 63% Poisoning, shooting 3%
Syed et al. (2008) [49] Retrospective case series (1990–2006) Karachi, Sindh DSH 69 0.59: 1 > 14 yrs.: 89.9% Poisoning, hanging, firearms 5.8%
Shahid et al. (2008) [89] Retrospective case series (2004) Karachi, Sindh DSH 98 0.58: 1 Mean age: 23.5 yrs Drug ingestion, organophosphate poisoning N/A
Karamaliani et al. (2008) [90] Cohort study Hyderabad, Sindh DSH 2 out of 2324 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Patel et al. (2008) [91] Retrospective case series (2002–2006) Karachi, Sindh DSH 202 0.69:1 Mean age: 17 yrs Benzodiazepines, anti-depressants 58.4% depression, 10.9% bipolar disorder
Khan et al. (2008) [28] Case-control (2003) Karachi, Sindh Suicide 100 cases
100 controls
4.88: 1 N/A Hanging, poisoning & firearms 96%
Khurram et al. (2008) [33] Cross-sectional (2006) Rawalpindi, Punjab DSH 60 0.72: 1 N/A Poisoning % not mentioned
Shaikh et al. (2008) Retrospective case series (2004–2006) Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deaths 99 out of 111 N/A N/A Poisoning N/A
Zakiullah et al. (2008) [92] Retrospective case series (1997–2002) Karachi, Sindh DSH 283 0.66: 1 12–15 yrs.: 22.2% Poisoning, cutting, burning 50.3%
Khan (n.d) [93] Cross-sectional Chitral, KPK Completed Suicides 32 100% females 16–20 yrs.: 59% N/A 0%
Farooq et al. (2009) [94] Retrospective case series (1999–2008) Rawalpindi, Punjab Unnatural deaths: 5.06% suicidal 9 N/A N/A Burns N/A
Ayub (2009) [95] Cross-sectional Pakistan Suicidal ideation N/A N/A N/A N/A Hopelessness linked to suicidal ideation
Khan et al. (2009) [27] Cross-sectional (2000–2004) Ghizer, KPK Suicide 49 100% females 18–25 yrs.: 59% Drowning, Poison, hanging N/A
Shahid et al. (2009) Retrospective case series (2008) Karachi, Sindh DSH 98 0.59: 1 Mean age: 23.5 yrs Benzodiazepines, organophosphate poisoning, alcohol poisoning 24.2%
Asad et al. (2010) [117] Cross-sectional Hyderabad, Sindh Suicidal ideation & attempts 41 attempted suicide
150 suicidal thoughts
100% females N/A N/A 18%
Farooq et al., (2010) [42] Retrospective case series (2007–2008) Rawalpindi, Punjab DSH Police reports: 7
ED: 33
Police reports: 13.2: 1
ED: 5.6:1
ED: 15–56 yrs.: 77.3% Poisoning N/A
Rizwan (2010) [97] Case-control Karachi, Sindh Suicidal ideation 120 in case, 120 in control Case: 2.15: 1
Control: 1:1
Mean age in case: 22 yrs.
Mean age in control: 21 yrs
N/A 100% in case group
Tahir et al. (2010) [55] Retrospective case series (2001–2008) Jamshoro, Sindh DSH 154 0.55: 1 Mean age: 31.21 yrs Burning 67%
Faruqui et al. (2011) [98] Cross-sectional (2009) Islamabad, Punjab Suicidal ideation 15 out of 50 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Naz (2012) [99] Retrospective case series (2010) Karachi, Sindh Suicide 10 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Ali et al. (2012) [100] Cross-sectional Karachi, Sindh Suicidal Ideation 28 100% females Not mentioned N/A % not mentioned
Kumar et al. (2012) [101] Retrospective case series (2010–2012) Larkana, Sindh Unnatural deaths 91 out of 10,130 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Lakhair et al. (2012) [102] Prospective case series Hyderabad, Sindh Unnatural deaths 58 out of 70 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Mirza et al. (2012) [103] Retrospective case series (2005–2010) Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deaths 7 out of 61 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Ali (2012) et al. [104] Prospective case series (2008) Karachi, Sindh Unnatural deaths 65 out of 100 N/A N/A Organophosphorous poisoning N/A
Kehtran et al. (2012) [105] Retrospective case series (1998–2000) Barkhan, Baluchistan Unnatural deaths 2 out of 268 N/A N/A Firearms N/A
Riaz et al. (2012) [106] Cross-sectional (2012) Karachi, Sindh DSH 9 N/A N/A Cutting  
Tahir et al. (2013) [107] Cross-sectional (2011) Mianwalli, Punjab DSH 108 3.54: 1 21–30 yrs.: 50.5% Poisoning & firearms 33%
Khalil et al. (2013) [96] Retrospective case series (2009–2012) Peshawar, KPK Unnatural deaths 66 out of 2365 12.2: 1 20–40 yrs Firearm, blunt trauma N/A
Ali (2013) et al. [108] Cross-sectional Karachi, Sindh Suicidal ideation 759: 58.8% had suicidal thoughts 100% females N/A N/A % not mentioned
Ayub et al. (2013) [109] Cross-sectional (2012) Lahore, Punjab Suicidal ideation 636 out of 650 100% females N/A N/A 93%
Raza et al. (2014) [110] Retrospective case series (2009–2013) Lahore, Punjab Unnatural deaths 3 out of 31 N/A N/A Knife, razor blade N/A
Shaikh et al. (2014) [111] Prospective case series Karachi, Sindh Suicidal ideation 171 N/A N/A N/A Anxiety statistically significant with suicidal ideation
Salman et al. (2014) [112] Prospective case series (2012) Peshawar, KPK DSH 45 0.8: 1 N/A N/A N/A
Saiq et al. (2014) [113] Prospective case series (2010–2012) Islamabad, Punjab DSH 93 0.24: 1 <35 yrs.: 96% Burning 1.07%
Osama et al. (2014) [114] Cross-sectional (2013) Karachi, Sindh Suicidal ideation 118 out of 331 0.70: 1 Mean age: 20.73 yrs N/A N/A
Husain et al. (2014) [36] Randomized control trial (2010–2012) Karachi, Sindh DSH 221 0.45: 1 Mean age: 23.1 yrs Poisoning N/A
Shagufta et al. (2015) [115] Prospective case series (2014) Peshawar, KPK Suicidal ideation 91 out of 415 100% males 11–18 yrs.: 100% N/A 0.24%
Rao et al. (2015) [116] Cross-sectional (2009) Pakistan Suicidal ideation 334 out of 4583 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Shahid et al. (2015) [46] Case-control study (2011–2012) Karachi, Sindh DSH 201 cases 201 controls 0.7: 1 N/A N/A 9% depression
  1. aUnnatural deaths (homicidal, accidental & suicidal)