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Table 1 Results of the literature review

From: Developing a decision tool to identify patients with personality disorders in need of highly specialized care

Author Type PS Type of article Criteria Positive effect on
Barnicot, K. et al. (2011) [23] BPD Systematic review Schizoid personality disorder
High level of impulsivity
Less pre-treatment suicidal behavior
Lack of motivation to change
Less internal, more external motivation to change
Experiencing higher stigmatization
Experiential avoidance
Higher trait anxiety
Higher anger level
Barnow, S. et al. (2010) [26] BPD Review Substance use disorders Treatment outcome
(suicidality/remission time)
Chiesa, M. et al. (2011) [27] PD Observational study Deliberate self-harm DSM-IV- (comorbidity)
Goodman, G. et al. (1998) [28] BPD Observational study Initial depression and initial psychotic symptoms Treatment outcome
(SCID-P-comorbidity/ SCL-90R-symptom checklist)
Gunderson, J. G. et al. (2006) [22] BPD Observational study Meet several criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Number of borderline personality disorder criteria
Number of personality disorder criteria
Number of axis-I disorders
Early history of abuse and neglect
Low GAF score
Lower quality relationships
Treatment outcome (DSM-IV-Number of criteria/ lower GAF score)
McMurran, M. et al. (2010) [29] PD Systematic review Lower age
Lower level of educational attainment
Lower-skilled occupation level
Convicted in court as an adolescent
Parental divorce before the age of 10
Emotional neglect during childhood
Less time alone
Being in a relationship for less than six months
Meet more than one PD diagnoses
Meet more PD criteria
Diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive PD, severe histrionic or antisocial PD and no specific PD
Having a dependent PD
Have a personality disorder in cluster A or B
Higher level of narcism
Higher level of impulsivity
Fewer suicide attempts
Higher trait anxiety
Still be in the pre-consideration stage of change
Less persistence
Higher levels of avoidance
Poor rational social problem-solving ability
High level of carelessness in problem-solving
High level of impulsivity in problem-solving
More social competence
Poor ego structure
Less primitive defence
Weaker adaptive defence style
A greater denial of need for closeness
Have conflicts regarding engagement and abandonment
Fear of impulsive breakthrough of negative affect
More externalizing defence
Projective identification
Lower level of general functioning
Previous substance abuse
Depressive self-image
Less depressed
No mood disorders
Problems are focussed in one area
Ryle, A. et al. (2000) [30] BPD Observational study History of self-cutting
Alcohol abuse
Skodol, A. E. et al. (2002) [31] BPD Review Childhood sexual abuse
Lower age at first psychiatric contact
Symptom chronicity
Affective instability
Magical thinking
Aggression in relationships
Substance abuse
More Schizotypical features
More Antisocial features
More Paranoid features
Number of borderline personality disorder criteria
A greater number of axis II disorders
Comorbidity of axis I and II disorders
Treatment outcome (DSM-IV: diagnostic criteria of borderline)
Thormählen B. et al. (2003) [32] PD Observational Study Have a personality disorder in cluster A or B
More distress
Focus on 1 specific interpersonal problem
Lower Age
Yen, S. et. Al (2002) [33] BPD, Schizotypical, Avoidant, and Obsessive Compulsive PD Observational study Measured number of physical attacks on another person in the past (with and without a weapon)
More exposure to various types of trauma
More lifelong PTSD
Lower age at first traumatic experience
Severity (DSM-IV: more severe: Schizotypal, BPD; other types)
Yoshida, K. et al. (2006) [34] BPD Observational study Overinvolvement in family relationships Treatment outcome (lower GAF score)