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Table 1 Overview included studies

From: The effect of youth assertive community treatment: a systematic PRISMA review

Referencea Study design (time-frame) Core elements of youth-ACT   Problems treated Nb Age (years) Gender (%) Ethnic group (%)   Team staff Level of evidencec
Adrian & Smith (2014) GBR [46] Pre-post test (2001–2011) Home-based treatment: Yes Serious mental illness in crisis, admission is considered 287 Range: 12–17
Mean: 16
Boys: 38
Girls: 62
White:
Black:
Asian:
Other:
73
13
4
10
Psychiatrist
Nurse practitioner
Psychologist
Support worker
Administrator
2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): NRd
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: Yes
Ahrens et al. (2007) USA [47] Pre-post test (1998–2000) Home-based treatment: Yes Long-term mental healthcare needs in transition to adulthood 15 Range: 15–20
Mean: 17
Boys: 80
Girls: 20
White:
Black:
80
20
Interdisciplinary, not specified 2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): NRd
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: Yes
Baier et al. (2013) CHE [6] Pre-post test (2009–2010) Home-based treatment: Yes Psychiatric symptoms and avoiding outpatient care 35 Range: 13–18
Mean: 16
Boys: 43
Girls: 57
NRd   Child psychiatrist
Social workers
Nurses
2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): Yes
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: Yes
Chai et al. (2012) AUS [48] Pre-post test (2006–2008) Home-based treatment: Yes Psychiatric symptoms and avoiding outpatient care 59 Range: 11–17
Modal: 15
Boys: 32
Girls: 68
NRd   Psychiatrist
Social workers
“Clinicians”
2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): Yes
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: NRd
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: Yes
Godley et al. (2002) USA [49] RCT (1999–2001) Home-based treatment: Yes Alcohol/ drugs dependence or abuse 114 Range: 12–17
Mean: 16
Boys: 80
Girls: 20
White:
Black:
Other:
74
17
9
Case manager (not specified) 2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): Yes
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: NRd
Godley et al. (2006) USA [50] RCT (1999–2003) Home-based treatment: Yes Alcohol/ drugs dependence or abuse 183 Range: 12–18
Mean: 16
Boys: 71
Girls: 29
White:
Black:
Other:
73
18
9
Case manager (not specified) 2bc
Small caseload (size < 10) Yes
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: NRd
Godley et al. (2010) USA [51] RCT (2002–2007) Home-based treatment: Yes Alcohol /drugs dependence or abuse 320 Range: 12–18
Mean: 16
Boys: 76
Girls: 24
White:
Black:
Other:
73
13
14
Case manager (not specified) 2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): No
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: NRd
Godley et al. (2015) USA [52] RCT (2004–2008) Home-based treatment: Yes Alcohol /drugs dependence or abuse 305 Range: 12–18
Mean: 16
Boys: 63
Girls: 37
White:
Black:
Other:
70
12
18
Case manager (not specified) 2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): NRd
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: NRd
McFarlane et al. (2014) USA [40] Quasi-experimental (2007–2010) Home-based treatment: Yes Risk or early symptoms of psychosis 337 Range: NRd
Mean: 17
Boys: 60
Girls: 40
White:
Black:
Other:
62
9
19
Psychiatrist
Nurse practitioner
Nurse
Occupational therapist
Clinical counsellors
2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): Yes
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: Yes
McGarvey et al. (2014) USA [41] Pre-post test (2007–2010) Home-based treatment: Yes Substance use or co-occurring disorder and low income 147 Range: 12–18
Mean: 16
Boys: 60
Girls: 40
White:
Black:
Other:
62
9
19
Psychiatrist
Nurse practitioner
Nurse
Occupational therapist
Clinical counsellors
2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): NRd
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: NRd
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: Yes
Schley et al. (2008) AUS [42] Pre-post test (2000–2004) Home-based treatment: Yes Psychiatric symptoms, with high-risk of self-harm or harming others, avoiding outpatient care 47 Range: 12–18
Mean: 16
Boys: 77
Girls: 23
City   Clinical trainers
Therapist (not specified)
2bc
White:
Black:
52
48
Small caseload (size < 10): Yes
County  
White:
Black:
63
37
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: NRd
Urben et al. (2015) CHE [8] Pre-post test (2010–2013) Home-based treatment: Yes Psychiatric symptoms and avoiding outpatient care 98 Range: NRd
Mean: 17
Boys: 53
Girls: 47
NRd   Psychiatrist
Psychologist
Social workers
Occupational therapist
Psychiatric nurse
2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): Yes
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: Yes
Urben et al. (2016) CHE [43] Pre-post test (NRd) Home-based treatment: Yes Psychiatric symptoms and avoiding outpatient care 47 Range: 13–18
Mean: NRd
Boys: 61
Girls: 39
NRd   Psychiatrist
Psychologist
Social workers
Occupational therapist
Psychiatric nurse
2bc
Small caseload (size < 10): Yes
Hardly assessable patients: Yes
Transition case management: Yes
Early intervention: Yes
Psychiatric assessment at home: Yes
Family support: Yes
Therapye: Yes
Pharmacology: Yes
  1. a ISO codes of representative countries (International Organization for Standardization) [83]
  2. b N = Sample size
  3. c Classification of methodological quality: 2b = RCT, low quality or cohort study (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine) [38]
  4. d NR = Not reported
  5. e Therapy = Reintegration/vocational therapy/educational therapy