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Table 4 Results of the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses

From: Economic evaluation of stepped-care versus usual care for depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment: randomized controlled trial

Outcome Analysis Mean cost difference (stepped-care – usual care (bootstrapped 95% CI)) Mean change difference (stepped-care – usual care (95% CI)) ICER CE-planea
NE SE SW NW
Disorder Societal perspective (friction) −877 (−8039 to 5489) 0.17 (0.06 to 0.29) −5159 41% 59% 0% 0%
Societal perspective (human capital) 200 (−7035 to 6829) 1176 53% 47% 0% 0%
Healthcare perspective −1154 (−7708 to 4328) −6788 37% 63% 0% 0%
CES-D Societal perspective (friction) −877 (−8039 to 5489) 2.73 (−0.28 to 5.74) −321 39% 58% 2% 1%
Societal perspective (human capital) 200 (−7035 to 6829) 73 51% 46% 1% 2%
Healthcare perspective −1154 (−7708 to 4328) −423 35% 62% 2% 1%
HADS-A Societal perspective (friction)) −877 (−8039 to 5489) 1.43 (0.10 to 2.77) −613 40% 58% 2% 0%
Societal perspective (human capital 200 (−7035 to 6829) 140 52% 46% 1% 1%
Healthcare perspective −1154 (−7708 to 4328) −807 36% 63% 1% 0%
QALY Societal perspective (friction) −877 (−8039 to 5489) 0.03 (−0.09 to 0.15) −29,233 25% 45% 14% 16%
Societal perspective (human capital) 200 (−7035 to 6829) 66,667 34% 36% 11% 19%
Healthcare perspective −1154 (−7708 to 4328) −38,467 23% 48% 16% 13%
  1. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses were based on: 1) societal perspective and the friction method, 2) societal perspective and the human capital method, and 3) healthcare perspective. CI confidence interval, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, HADS-A Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, QALY quality adjusted life year, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, CE cost-effectiveness, NE north-east quadrant, SE south-east quadrant, SW south-west quadrant, NW north-west quadrant. aEffect estimates for Disorder, CES-D and HADS-A were multiplied by −1 in the CE plane to maintain the usual meaning of the quadrants