|Study (country)||Recovery||Study design||n||Intervention group||Control group||Follow up||Outcome measures||Impact on disability||Quality of rating|
|Farhall et al., 2009 Australia||
Recovery concept: recovery.|
Main content: the recovery therapy intervention is a form of CBTp, which focuses on agreed recovery goals using one or more recovery therapy components such as everyday coping, working with symptoms, understanding experience of psychosis, strengthening adaptive view of self, personal/emotional issues or comorbid disorders, relapse prevention, and family or social reintegration.
Recovery therapy (CBTp) + TAU|
Primary measures: PANSS; HADS.|
Secondary measures: RSE; Self Report Insight Scale; LSP.
|No statistically significant differences between CBTp + TAU and TAU.||Weak|
|Fowler et al., 2009 The UK||
Recovery concept: social recovery.|
Main content: stage one involved formulation of the person in social recovery as well as identifying day-to-day meaningful personal goals to address motivation and hopelessness. Stage two involved identifying and working towards medium- to long-term goals and promotion of a sense of agency and addressing hopelessness, feelings of stigma and negative beliefs about self and others. Stage three involved the active promotion of social activity, work, education and leisure linked to meaningful goals, while managing symptoms of anxiety and low-level psychotic symptoms.
Social Recovery Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (SRCBT) + TAU|
Mean of 12 sessions
|TAU||No follow up||
Primary measures: Time Use Survey|
Secondary measures: PANSS; BHS; QLS;
Tertiary assessments: BDI-II; BAI; SOFAS; CAN.
No main effects of CBT treatment for any of the outcome variables for the total sample.|
Non-affective psychosis group improved on PANSS.
Non-affective psychosis group improved on constructive economic activity and structured activity (Time Use Survey).
Grant et al., 2012|
Recovery concept: the Recovery Movement with central features referring to goal-directed framework, personalized and person-oriented therapeutic approach highlighting the patients’ interests, assets, and strengths.|
Main content: initial sessions focused on enhancing the therapeutic relationship and stimulating patients’ interest and motivation to focus respectively on achievable goals. Impediments to goals achievement were also addressed in the later phases of the intervention.
Cognitive Therapy plus standard treatment (ST)|
|Standard treatment (ST)||
Primary measures: GAS.|
Secondary measures: SANS, SAPS.
Avolition-apathy (SANS) across the trial
Positive symptoms (SAPS) across the trial.
Global functioning (GAS) across the trial.
Johns et al., 2015|
Recovery concept: recovery referred to as “living a satisfying, hopeful and contributing life even with limitations caused by the illness” and “having a sense of purpose and direction”.|
Main content: the authors described the interventions as compatible with conceptualizations of recovery. The intervention promoted psychological flexibility (a more accepting, mindful, and de-fused approach) in response to symptoms of psychosis and associated emotions/thoughts, in order to help the person act in accordance with their personal values.
|Pre + post||89 total||
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy|
one optional telephone session
|No control group||20 weeks||The Sheehan Disability Scales, HADS, AAQ-II, CFQ, SMQ.||
Mood over time (HADS)
Functioning over time (The Sheehan Disability Scales)
Processes targeted by the intervention (AAQ-II, CFQ, SMQ).
Laithwaite et al., 2009|
Recovery concept: recovery.|
Main content: a recovery intervention was based on the compassionate mind training. During the first module of the intervention participants were encouraged to think about their recovery beyond symptom reduction and as a journey of experience. Further modules targeted compassion with reference to working on strength, acceptance, forgiveness as well as developing the ideal friend. The last module focused on developing plans for recovery after psychosis.
|Pre + post||19 total||
Compassionate mind training (CMT)|
|No control group||6 weeks||Primary measures: SCS, OAS, SeCS, BDI-II, RSE, SIP-AD. Secondary measures: PANSS.||
General psychopathology (PANSS)
Comparisons to others (SCS), self-esteem (RSE), external shame (OAS).
|Recovery||Study design||n||Intervention group||Control group||Follow up||Outcome measures||Impact on disability||Quality of rating|
Penn et al., 2011|
Recovery concept: illness management and functional recovery.|
Main content: the program placed an emphasis on personal goal pursuit to foster optimism and self-esteem, targeted malleable factors that may enhance recovery such as residual symptoms and substance use, and enlists external social support to maximize therapeutic gains and engagement. The intervention consisted of four phases: engagement and wellness management; substance use; persistent symptoms; and functional recovery.
Graduated Recovery Intervention Program (GRIP) (CBT) + TAU|
Primary outcomes: QLS; RFS, MCAS; SSPA.|
Secondary outcomes: the PANSS; CDSS; subscales from the Scales of
Psychological Well-Being; MSPSS; AUS; DUS; BEMIB.
Activity and participation domain: Work functioning at follow-up (RFS)|
Depression (CDSS) across the trial
Activity and participation domain:
Extended social network (RFS) across the trial
Total role functioning (RFS) across the trial
Social competence (MCAS) across the trial
Williams et al., 2014|
Recovery concept: the recovery model described as building a meaningful and satisfying life defined by the person themselves, focusing upon strengths and wellness not illness and pathology, a sense of hope, and possibility of change, promotion of self-management and personal identity (not patient identity), the therapeutic relationship being one of partnership not “expert-patient”; and encouragement of group members to help each other in recovery.|
Main content: The intervention was delivered in five modules. The first one focused on engagement and treatment preparation, module two on individual analysis of the person and schizophrenia, module three understanding and managing positive symptoms, module four maximizing mental health and module five reviews of personal aims and goals, reinforcement of protective factors, development of a detailed relapse recognition and staying well plan as well as discussion of future directions.
Individual and group
35 planned sessions
|TAU||No follow up||SAPS, SANS, PSYRATS, DASS, IIP.||
Affective flattening (SANS)
Overall interpersonal problems (social inhibition and self-sacrifice) (IIP)