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Table 4 Adjusteda (independent) associations between each BPD criterion and violence outcomes in a joint UK household survey (N = 14,753)

From: Borderline personality disorder and violence in the UK population: categorical and dimensional trait assessment

  Borderline personality disorder DSM-IV criteria
  Avoid abandonment Unstable relationships Identity disturbance Impulsivity Suicidal behaviour Affective instability Emptiness Anger Paranoid ideation
Outcomes AOR(95 % CI) AOR(95 % CI) AOR(95 % CI) AOR(95%CI) AOR(95%CI) AOR(95 % CI) AOR(95 % CI) AOR(95 % CI) AOR(95 % CI)
Any violence 1.33 (1.10–1.60)** 1.15 (0.94–1.40) 0.69 (0.40–1.17) 1.46 (1.24–1.71)*** 1.09 (0.74–1.61) 1.17 (0.90–1.51) 0.87 (0.68–1.12) 2.47 (1.92–3.19)*** 1.18 (0.90–1.55)
Intoxicated 1.12 (0.84–1.50) 1.15 (0.85–1.55) 1.03 (0.55–1.96) 1.20 (0.94–1.53) 0.91 (0.55–1.50) 1.07 (0.74–1.55) 0.95 (0.65–1.39) 2.07 (1.44–2.97)*** 1.27 (0.88–1.83)
Minor violence 1.28 (0.99–1.65) 1.25 (0.95–1.66) 0.30 (0.13–0.67)** 1.63 (1.29–2.07)*** 0.80 (0.47–1.37) 1.11 (0.78–1.58) 1.00 (0.70–1.43) 1.77 (1.22–2.58)** 1.41 (0.95–2.07)
Severity          
 5 > incidents 0.95 (0.66–1.38) 1.29 (0.87–1.91) 0.94 (0.47–1.89) 1.72 (1.18–2.50)** 1.09 (0.58–2.05) 1.06 (0.64–1.75) 0.70 (0.42–1.15) 3.38 (2.14–5.34)*** 1.03 (0.60–1.76)
 Victim injured 1.16 (0.84–1.60) 0.80 (0.56–1.14) 0.89 (0.43–1.84) 1.44 (1.08–1.92)* 1.20 (0.68–2.12) 1.04 (0.68–1.59) 0.99 (0.66–1.48) 2.41 (1.63–3.58)*** 0.82 (0.51–1.32)
Victim types          
 IPV 2.17 (1.56–3.00)*** 1.47 (1.01–2.14)* 0.76 (0.39–1.47) 1.40 (1.00–1.97)* 1.18 (0.68–2.05) 1.13 (0.75–1.71) 0.79 (0.51–1.22) 3.36 (2.22–5.09)*** 1.15 (0.73–1.81)
Familyb 1.01 (0.58–1.75) 0.96 (0.52–1.77) 0.96 (0.37–2.47) 2.00 (1.22–3.28)** 1.63 (0.70–3.80) 1.35 (0.60–3.06) 1.28 (0.63–2.57) 1.57 (0.75–3.28) 0.93 (0.43–2.02)
 Friend 1.37 (0.90–2.09) 1.47 (0.95–2.29) 0.48 (0.21–1.11) 1.31 (0.89–1.94) 1.41 (0.75–2.65) 0.87 (0.50–1.53) 0.72 (0.41–1.26) 2.57 (1.53–4.29)*** 1.37 (0.78–2.39)
 Person known 1.69 (1.24–2.31)*** 1.23 (0.89–1.70) 0.34 (0.17–0.68)** 1.75 (1.31–2.34)*** 0.66 (0.36–1.21) 0.94 (0.61–1.44) 1.22 (0.81–1.83) 1.82 (1.21–2.74)** 1.21 (0.80–1.82)
 Stranger 1.14 (0.88–1.48) 0.87 (0.65–1.16) 1.20 (0.61–2.37) 1.41 (1.12–1.77)** 1.15 (0.70–1.89) 1.04 (0.71–1.52) 0.69 (0.47–1.02) 1.98 (1.43–2.74)*** 0.99 (0.66–1.49)
Locations          
 Own home 1.35 (0.99–1.85) 1.24 (0.87–1.79) 1.05 (0.57–1.95) 1.59 (1.14–2.20)** 1.22 (0.70–2.13) 1.31 (0.84–2.06) 1.32 (0.88–2.00) 2.62 (1.72–3.99)*** 0.80 (0.51–1.25)
 Street 1.36 (1.06–1.74)* 1.07 (0.82–1.40) 0.77 (0.42–1.43) 1.54 (1.23–1.93)*** 0.96 (0.61–1.50) 0.86 (0.62–1.20) 0.79 (0.56–1.10) 2.44 (1.81–3.30)*** 1.14 (0.81–1.62)
 Bar/pub 1.41 (1.05–1.89)* 0.77 (0.56–1.07) 0.81 (0.44–1.50) 1.44 (1.09–1.91)* 0.65 (0.39–1.10) 1.22 (0.82–1.84) 0.88 (0.58–1.33) 2.02 (1.38–2.95)*** 1.27 (0.81–1.98)
  1. Note. Weighted Logistic Regression estimates
  2. aAdjusted for gender, age, marital status, social class and ethnicity; drug and alcohol dependence, psychosis, ASPD and anxiety disorder
  3. bNot adjusted for psychosis due to complete separation (i.e., non-exposed cases perfectly predict outcome)
  4. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001