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Table 2 Item-level statistics for the ISMI scale (n = 173)

From: The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: validation of the Japanese version

Item Mean S.D.
Alienation   
 I feel out of place in the world because I have a mental illness. 2.3 0.84
 I am embarrassed or ashamed that I have a mental illness. 2.3 0.87
 I feel inferior to others who don’t have a mental illness. 2.4 0.88
 I am disappointed in myself for having a mental illness. 2.3 0.90
 Having a mental illness has spoiled my life. 2.3 0.93
 People without mental illness could not possibly understand me. 2.4 0.89
Subscale mean 2.35 0.63
 Proportion above the midpoint of 2.5 43.1 %  
Stereotype Endorsement   
 Mentally ill people tend to be violent. 2.0 0.80
 Mentally ill people shouldn’t get married. 1.9 0.81
 People with mental illness cannot live a good, rewarding life. 2.1 0.85
 People can tell that I have a mental illness by the way I look. 2.1 0.83
 Because I have a mental illness, I need others to make most decisions for me. 2.0 0.75
 I can’t contribute anything to society because I have a mental illness. 2.2 0.78
 Stereotypes about the mentally ill apply to me. 2.4 0.83
Subscale mean 2.10 0.4
 Proportion above the midpoint of 2.5 29.7 %  
Discrimination Experience   
 People discriminate against me because I have a mental illness. 2.2 0.82
 People often patronize me, or treat me like a child, just because I have a mental illness. 2.2 0.79
 People ignore me or take me less seriously just because I have a mental illness. 2.3 0.82
 Nobody would be interested in getting close to me because I have a mental illness. 2.2 0.76
 Others think that I can’t achieve much in life because I have a mental illness. 2.4 0.84
Subscale mean 2.25 0.60
 Proportion above the midpoint of 2.5 34.7 %  
Social Withdrawal   
 I avoid getting close to people who don’t have a mental illness to avoid rejection. 1.9 0.73
 I don’t socialize as much as I used to because my mental illness might make me look or behave “weird”. 2.3 0.86
 I don’t talk about myself much because I don’t want to burden others with my mental illness. 2.5 0.85
 Negative stereotypes about mental illness keep me isolated from the “normal” world. 2.4 0.83
 Being around people who don’t have a mental illness makes me feel out of place or inadequate. 2.3 0.78
 I stay away from social situations in order to protect my family or friends from embarrassment. 2.2 0.78
Subscale mean 2.27 0.56
 Proportion above the midpoint of 2.5 37.8 %  
Stigma Resistance (reverse-coded items)   
 People with mental illness make important contributions to society. 2.8 0.80
 I feel comfortable being seen in public with an obviously mentally ill person. 3.1 0.71
 Living with mental illness has made me a tough survivor. 2.5 0.80
 In general, I am able to live my life the way I want to. 2.7 0.82
 I can have a good, fulfilling life, despite my mental illness. 2.7 0.83
Subscale mean 2.75 0.48
 Proportion above the midpoint of 2.5 63.5 %  
Total scale mean 2.33 0.43
 Proportion above the midpoint of 2.5 40.8 %