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Table 2 Risk of pulmonary embolism associated with antipsychotic drug use

From: Antipsychotic drug exposure and risk of pulmonary embolism: a population-based, nested case–control study

  Cases (n = 232) Controls (n = 4353) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P value Adjusted* odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Category of antipsychotic exposure:       
  Current 195 (84.1%) 2,956 (67.9%) 2.91 (1.48 - 5.73) 0.002 2.31 (1.16 - 4.59) 0.017
  Recent 28 (12.1%) 1,002 (23.0%) 1.24 (0.58 - 2.64) 0.585 0.96 (0.44 - 2.07) 0.910
  Past 9 (3.9%) 395 (9.1%) 1   1  
Class of antipsychotic received: (within past 3 months)       
  Conventional only 53 (22.8%) 507 (11.6%) 4.67 (2.27 - 9.61) <0.001 3.52 (1.69 - 7.35) 0.001
  Atypical only 134 (57.8%) 2,386 (54.8%) 2.49 (1.26 - 4.93) 0.009 2.01 (1.01 - 4.03) 0.048
  Both 8 (3.4%) 63 (1.4%) 5.66 (2.11 - 15.17) 0.001 4.21 (1.53 - 11.59) 0.005
No of antipsychotic scripts received: (within past 3 months)       
  1 96 (41.4%) 1,504 (34.6%) 2.82 (1.41 - 5.65) 0.003 2.19 (1.08 - 4.42) 0.029
  ≥2 99 (42.7%) 1,452 (33.4%) 3.01 (1.5 - 6) 0.002 2.44 (1.21 - 4.93) 0.013
No of different antipsychotic drugs received: (within past 3 months)       
  1 178 (76.7%) 2,857 (65.6%) 2.74 (1.39 - 5.4) 0.004 2.19 (1.1 - 4.36) 0.025
  ≥2 17 (7.3%) 99 (2.3%) 7.68 (3.32 - 17.75) <0.001 5.87 (2.48 - 13.89) <0.001
DDDs: (within past 3 months)       
  <15 82 (35.3%) 1,440 (33.1%) 2.48 (1.23 - 5) 0.011 1.96 (0.96 - 3.99) 0.064
  ≥15 113 (48.7%) 1,516 (34.8%) 3.31 (1.66 - 6.6) 0.001 2.62 (1.3 - 5.25) 0.007
Formulation: (within past 3 months)       
  Oral 188 (81.0%) 2,822 (64.8%) 2.95 (1.5 - 5.81) 0.002 2.34 (1.17 - 4.64) 0.016
  Acute injection 5 (2.2%) 97 (2.2%) 2.28 (0.75 - 6.95) 0.147 2.05 (0.66 - 6.37) 0.215
  Long-acting injection 0 (0.0%) 22 (0.5%) -   -  
  1. *adjusted for psychiatric hospitalization, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, chronic liver disease, Parkinson’s disease, chronic renal disease, use of lithium, statins, NSAID, antiplatelet treatment, antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatment.
  2. reference category for all odds ratios.
  3. CI = confidence interval.
  4. DDDs = defined daily dose.