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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Health service use and costs associated with aggressiveness or agitation and containment in adult psychiatric care: a systematic review of the evidence

Paper Country and period of study (year) Design Setting Diagnosis (%) Mean age % of men (N) Total sample size Agitated sample size
Barlow K et al. 2000 [18] Australia, 18 months (1996–1997) Prospective observational study 3 acute psychiatric units and 1 subacute unit Schizophrenia (21.3) 37 (range: 13–97) 52.2 (663) 1,096 174
     Psychotic disorder (14.0)     
     Bipolar affective (7.2)     
     Adjustment disorder (18.5)     
     Depression (18.5)     
     Personality disorder (3.0)     
     Anxiety disorder (5.0)     
     Other (12.4)     
Carr VJ et al. 2008 [19] Australia, 12 months (n.a.) Prospective observational study 11 mental health units (8 general psychiatric units, 2 high-dependency units and 1 specialized unit) Drug and alcohol disorder (44.6) 37.1 (SD 14.4) 55.0 (weighted percentage) (2,210) 3,242 849 (Aggressive incidents: 363; Less serious aggressive incidents: 486)
     Schizophrenia or related disorder (38.0)     
     Depression (25.3)     
     Personality disorder (18.9)     
     Adjustment disorder (14.2)     
     Bipolar disorder (14.0)     
Compton MT et al. 2006 [20] USA, 7 months (2003–2004) Retrospective database cohort study 2 inpatient psychiatric units (a crisis stabilization unit (CSU) and a longer-stay milieu unit (LSMU)) Schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders (65.0) LSMU: 37.4 (SD 12.6) CSU: 40.8 (SD 11.8) LSMU: 40.7 (60), CSU: 48.9 (43) LSMU: 146; CSU: 88 n.a.
     Unipolar depression (15.8)     
     Bipolar disorder (12.4)     
     Anxiety disorders (0.9)     
     Substance-related disorders (4.3)     
     Other (1.3)     
Flood C et al. 2008 [13] United Kingdom, 1 year (2005) Epidemiological, cross-sectional study 136 adult acute inpatient psychiatric wards n.a. n.a.   n.a.  
Jaffe A et al. 2009 [21] USA, 6 months (2005) Retrospective database cohort study 17 state-run adult civil facilities Schizophrenia (41.4) 41.5 (SD 13.6) 63 (257) 1,673 415
     Schizoaffective (31.9)     
     Bipolar (10.4)     
     Depression (5.7)     
     Other (10.6)     
Legris J et al. 1999[22] Canada, n.a. (n.a.) Retrospective database cohort study Urban general hospital with two adult psychiatric wards and a special care unit Schizophrenia (54) 41 (SD 16) 41 (35) 85 41
     Bipolar or schizoaffective (23)     
     Psychotic depression (12)     
     Other (11)     
Mellesdal L 2003 [23] Norway, 3 years (1997–2000) Prospective observational study Psychiatric acute ward Affective disorders (34.7) 41.1 (SD 15.5) 51 (476) 934 98
     Schizophrenic disorders (19.2)     
     Alcohol/substance abuse (10.4)     
     Personality disorders (9.4)     
     Neurotic/stress-related somatoform disorders (7.1)     
     Other (19.2)     
Peiró S et al. 2004 [24] Spain, 6 months (1999–2001) Retrospective database cohort study Acute inpatient units from 8 general hospitals and psychiatric hospitals Schizophrenic disorders (64.0) 39.2 (SD 14.5) 44.8 (56) 200 175
     Affective psychosis (22.0)     
     Paranoid states (4.5)     
     Other non-organic psychosis (8.5)     
     Transient organic psychosis (1.0)     
Putkonen A et al. 2013 [26] Finland, 6 months (2009) Cluster-randomized controlled trial Four high-security wards for men with psychotic illness. Psychotic illness with a history of severe violence (100) Control group: 40.0 (SD 10.6) Intervention group: 38.4 (SD 10.6) 100 Control group: 930–1,003 patient-days per month (38 beds) Intervention group: 1,306-1,400 patient-days per month (50 beds) n.a.
Steinert T et al. 1999 [25] Germany, 4 years (1990–1993) Retrospective database cohort study Psychiatric hospital Paranoid type schizophrenia (78.9) 32.4 (SD 12.7) 55.8 (77) 138 96
     Schizoaffective disorder (15.9)     
     Accompanying substance abuse (29.7)     
     Accompanying somatic disease (21.0)