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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the bipolar sample according to predominant polarity

From: Predominant polarity in bipolar disorder and validation of the polarity index in a German sample

  DPP (N = 169) MPP (N = 46) Chi Square p adj 2
N (50.3%) N (13.7%)
Sex    5.49 .019
 Female 116 (68.6) 23 (50)
 Male 53 (31.4) 23 (50)
Subtype    31.45 <.000*
 Bipolar I 80 (47.3) 43 (93.5)   
 Bipolar II 89 (52.7) 3 (6.5)   
Family history of psychiatric disorders 138 (81.7) 35 (76.1) 0.71 .398
Family history of suicide 59 (34.9) 12 (26.1) 1.27 .259
Rapid cycling 19 (11.2) 3 (6.5) 0.88 .349
Psychotic symptoms 22 (13.0) 13 (28.3) 6.16 .013
First Episode Mania 11 (6.5) 30 (65.2) 80.75 <.000*
Mania with irritable mood 52 (30.8) 34 (73.9) 28.04 <.000*
Mixed Episodes 55 (34.6) 16 (39.0) 0.28 .597
Suicide attempts (life time) 68 (40.2) 15 (32.6) 0.89 .346
Substance abuse (life time) 18 (10.7) 10 (21.7) 3.93 .481
Treatment     
Lithium 74 (43.8) 30 (65.2) 6.65 .010
Other Mood Stabilizers1 63 (37.3) 26 (56.5) 5.52 .019
Antipsychotics (incl. quetiapine) 117 (69.2) 43 (93.5) 11.17 .001*
Antidepressants 121 (71.6) 14 (30.4) 26.22 <.000*
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) t p adj. 2
Age 50.3 (14.8) 52.1 (12.2) -.765 .451
Age of Onset 29.8 (11.8) 28.5 (10.4) .667 .505
Age of first depression 29.7 (12.1) 31.6 (12.1) -0.85 .396
Age of first mania 37.1 (14.5) 28.8 (11.0) 3.43 .001*
Duration of illness 20.5 (12.5) 23.6 (12.6) -1.45 .148
Total number of episodes 11.1 (10.2) 10.7 (6.3) 0.282 .778
Number of manic episodes 2.3 (2.5) 8.3 (5.5) -10.56 <.000*
Number of depressive episodes 8.6 (8.0) 2.4 (2.0) 5.26 <.000*
Number of mixed episodes 1.0 (2.8) 0.71 (1.2) .736 .463
  1. *p< .05.
  2. DPP = depressive predominant polarity, MPP = manic predominant polarity, UPP = uncertain predominant polarity.
  3. 1(Valproate, Lamotrigine, Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine).
  4. 2We used bonferroni correction for multiple testing (23 hypotheses) for adjusting the p-values to 0.0022 (0.05/23).