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Table 2 Study characteristics of 13 studies

From: Exploring psychosis and bipolar disorder in women: a critical review of the qualitative literature

  Authors Year Country Description of sample N Women/mothers Ethnicity Recruited from Data collection Analysis Score & quality rating
1 Hagen & Nixon [37] 2011 Canada Women recovered from some form of psychotic experience. Diagnoses not stated. Age range: 27-57 years (mean: 38). No information about parental status. No information about level of education, religion, relationship status or SES. 18 Women Not stated Word of mouth/advertise-ment in alternative health magazine Narrative interviews Phenome-nological data analysis 7 B
2 Borba et al. [32] 2011 USA Women with diagnosis of SMI (10 schizophrenia, 6 BD, 13 major depression and 1 other). Sample described as low income, urban women. Age range: 28-62 years (mean = 45.8). No information about parental status. Highest level of education: Less than a high school diploma (10), high school diploma (16), some college credits (4). Religion not stated. Marital status: Married or living as married (2), widowed (4), separated (3), divorced (7), single, never married (14). No information about religion. 30 Women 28 African American 1 White, 1 other. Community settings Interviews Modified constant comparative method 8 A
3 Venkataraman & Ackerson [33] 2008 USA Mothers with BD. Age range: 21-49 years (mean not stated). Education: High school (5), college (5). Relationship status: Single (6), married (1), cohabiting (3). SES: Low (7), middle (3). No information about religion. 10 Mothers White American Community settings Semi-structured interviews Constant comparative analysis 6.5 B
4 Luhrmann [34] 2008 USA Homeless women with psychotic symptoms. No formal diagnostic interview. Ages not stated. No information about parental status. No information about education, religion, or relationship status. 61 Women Not stated Community settings Semi-structured interviews/observation Not stated 5.5 C
5 Ueno & Kamibeppu [44] 2008 Japan Mothers with chronic mental illness (13 schizophrenia, 7 mood disorders). Age range not stated. (mean: 43). Relationship status: Married (14), separated or divorced (4), widow (1), never married (1). No information about education, religion or SES. 20 Mothers Japanese Discharged inpatient/community settings Narrative interviews Modified grounded theory 7.5 B
6 Chermonas, Clarke & Marchinko [38] 2008 Canada Women with schizophrenia (9 schizophrenia, 3 schizoaffective disorder & 2 paranoid schizophrenia). Age range: 40-73 years (median: 45). No information about parental status. Education: Less than high school (4), completed high school (2), completed or some post-secondary education (8). Marital status: Married or living common law (3), single or divorced (9), have boyfriends (3). SES: Low (8), middle (4), high (2). No information about religion. 14 Women Most White/White with European Ancestry, 1 part Aboriginal, 1 Asian. Community settings Semi-structured interviews Not stated 6.5 B
7 Padgett et al. [35] 2006 USA Formerly homeless women with SMI (5 schizophrenia, 2 schizoaffective disorder, 3 major depression, 3 BD). Age range: 31 - 62 years (mean: 50 years). 7 mothers. SES: Poor/working class (8), middle class (5). No information about education, religion or relationship status. 13 Women 6 African American 5 White, 2 Latina Community settings In depth life history interviews Cross case/collective case study 9.5 A
8 Chiu et al. [39] 2005 Canada Women with SMI (18 schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, 6 major depression, 4 BD, 2 major depression with psychosis/delusions). Age range: 26-67 years (mean: 46). No information about parental status. East Asian women: Education: Elementary school (1), high school (6), post-secondary education (7), no formal education (1). Religion: Christianity (7), Buddhism (2), Catholicism (1). Relationship status: Single (6), married (3), widowed (2), divorced (2). SES: Self-employed (2), on pension (2), welfare or disability (9), supported by families (2). South Asian women: Education: Elementary school (2), high school (5), post-secondary education (4), no formal education (4). Religion: Sikhism: 15. Sikhism with Hinduism: 2. Relationship status: Married (7), widowed (3), separated (2), divorced (3). SES: Employed (1), welfare or disability (5), supported by families (9). 30 Women 15 East Asian 15 South Asian Community settings Semi structured interviews Constant comparative analysis 9.5 A
9 Edwards & Timmons [41] 2005 UK Mothers with postnatal illness (3 puerperal psychosis, 2 severe postnatal depression, 1 depressive psychosis). Ages not stated. No information about education, religion, relationship or SES. 6 Mothers Not stated Discharged inpatient Interviews Not stated 7.5 B
10 Diaz-Caneja & Johnson [42] 2004 UK Mothers with SMI (8 schizophrenia, 10 BD, 4 severe depression with psychotic symptoms). 2 mothers 20-29 years, 9 mothers 30-39, 11 mothers 40+. Marital status: Currently married/living with partner (3), previously married, now not living with partner (11), widow (1), never married (7). No information about education, religion or SES. 22 Mothers 13 White UK, 3 White other, 1 Black UK, 1 Black Caribbean, 1 Black African, 2 Asian, 1 Mixed Community settings Interviews Thematic analysis 8.5 B
11 Robertson & Lyons [43] 2003 UK Mothers with experience of puerperal psychosis. Age range 28-44 years (mean = 34). No information about education, religion, relationship status or SES. 10 Mothers Not stated Community settings Interviews Grounded theory 6 B
12 Pentland et al. [40] 2003 Canada Aging women with schizophrenia (45+ years, diagnosis of schizophrenia in early adulthood). Age range: 47-65 years. 3 mothers. Marital status: Married (1), divorced (1), single (4). No information about education, religion or SES. 6 Women Not stated Community settings In depth interviews. Thematic analysis 6.5 B
13 Sands [36] 1995 USA Mothers with SMI - single, low income mothers with chronic mental illness living in a supportive residential programme. (6 schizophrenia, 1 schizotypal personality disorder, 1 major depression, 1 BD, 1 unknown.) Age range: 22-40 years (mean = 27). Education: At least high school education (6), less than high school education (3), unknown (1). No information about religion. 10 Mothers 7 African American, 3 White Community settings Semi-structured interviews/observation Not stated 5.5 C