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Table 1 Association between demographic and socioeconomic risk factors and PND, Porto Alegre, 2006.

From: Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

   Edinburgh ≥ 13 Crude Prevalence Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (95% CI)
  n % or mean ± SD   
Age (years)     
14 – 19 43 23.3 1.30 (0.68 – 2.49)  
20 – 29 134 17.9 1.00  
30 – 39 17 22.7 1.27 (0.73 – 2.20)  
40 – 47 19 26.3 1.47 (0.64 – 3.39)  
P value    0.7  
Per capita income (MW)*++     
1.17 – 17.0 85 7.1 1.00 1.00
0.51 – 1.16 84 20.2 2.87 (1.19 – 6.92) 3.07 (1.09–8.69)
≤ 0.5 87 29.9 4.25 (1.84 – 9.77) 4.40 (1.48–13.0)
P value    < 0.01 0.03
Primary Income Earner's schooling**++ 254 7.90 (± 6.02)+ 0.96 (0.92 – 0.99) 0.04 1.01 (0.97–1.06) 0.7
P value     
Caucasian**     
Yes 175 16.6 1.00 1.00
No 96 28.1 1.70 (1.07 – 2.69) 0.80 (0.49–1.32)
P value    0.04 0.4
Employment/work**     
Yes 105 15.2 1.00 1.00
No 166 24.1 1.58 (0.93 – 2.68) 1.05 (0.61–1.79)
P value    0.1 0.9
Participant's schooling** 271 6.48 (± 3.55)+ 0.90 (0.86 – 0.96) 0.98 (0.90–1.06)
P value    < 0.01 0.6
Spouse/partner**     
Yes 224 17.4 1.00 1
No 47 36.2 2.08 (1.29 – 3.34) 1.61 (0.97–2.66)
P value    < 0.01 0.06
Religion/Faith**     
Yes 132 18.9 1.00 1.00
No 139 22.3 0.85 (0.53 – 1.36) 0.78 (0.39–1.05)
P value    0.6 0.3
  1. *Mw: (US$ 204, July 2007)
  2. + Mean and standard deviation
  3. ** Prevalence ratio adjusted for per capita income
  4. + Mean adjusted for per capita income
  5. ++ Losses due to refusal to respond or storage failures.