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Table 1 Scales for measuring cultural identity: from the origins to a contemporary view

From: Bicultural identity among economical migrants from three south European countries living in Switzerland. Adaptation and validation of a new psychometric instrument

Mono-dimensional (e.g. language behaviors) Multi-dimensional (e.g. values, spirituality)
Mono-level (the individual) Bi-level (the individual and the social group)
Mono-directional (acculturation to the host country) Bi-directional (bicultural identity)
Mono-ethnic (designed for one group of migrants) Multi-ethnic (applicable across several ethnic or cultural groups)