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Table 1 Sample characteristics for the B cohort (4–5 years) and K cohort (8–9 years)

From: A three generation study of the mental health relationships between grandparents, parents and children

  B cohort K cohort
  N = 2676–4253 N = 2636–4196
Variable % (N) % (N)
Child SDQ mean (SD) 8.5 (0.1) 7.8 (0.1)
Parent mental health   
Mother has elevated psychological distress 10.6 (350) 14.0 (458)
Father has elevated psychological distress 9.5 (235) 11.5 (279)
Grandparent mental health   
Maternal grandmother, with MH history 24.8 (818) 25.1 (801)
Maternal grandfather, with no MH history 16.5 (540) 15.1 (479)
Paternal grandmother, with no MH history 20.3 (608) 18.4 (524)
Paternal grandfather, with no MH history 11.7 (348) 11.9 (342)
Child contact with maternal grandparents   
Don’t have 2.5 (96) 5.1 (192)
No contact 2.9 (110) 4.2 (157)
Rarely 9.0 (344) 11.8 (444)
A few times a year 18.9 (719) 19.4 (729)
At least every month 18.7 (712) 21.7 (817)
At least every week 38.8 (1479) 30.5 (1148)
Every day 9.2 (352) 7.4 (280)
Child contact with paternal grandparents   
Don’t have 6.3 (238) 10.1 (375)
No contact 5.1 (195) 6.4 (238)
Rarely 13.5 (514) 14.7 (547)
A few times a year 21.8 (826) 22.4 (835)
At least every month 22.0 (835) 22.5 (838)
At least every week 26.8 (1017) 19.5 (729)
Every day 4.6 (173) 4.5 (168)
Family type   
Two-parent original 83.4 (3653) 76.6 (3318)
Two-parent blended 2.8 (107) 7.0 (252)
Lone-parent family 13.8 (455) 16.3 (581)
Mothers age at birth of first child   
Less than 20 years 11.0 (321) 10.4 (332)
20-24 years 22.2 (866) 23.9 (904)
25+ years 66.8 (3066) 65.7 (2960)
Socioeconomic Position   
Disadvantaged 30.6 (1031) 30.9 (1031)
Not disadvantaged 69.4 (3218) 69.1 (3162)
Medical problem in child   
No 89.8 (3850) 90.7 (3827)
Yes 10.2 (403) 9.3 (369)
At least one parent has medical problem   
No 86.7 (3731) 85.1 (3602)
Yes 13.3 (522) 14.9 (594)
  1. MH = Mental Health.