Skip to main content

Table 2 Performance on neuropsychological tests for patients with bipolar disorder type I, type II and healthy controls with data presented as mean (SD) scores

From: Neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder: a comparison between bipolar I and II disorder and matched controls

  Bipolar I (BPI) Bipolar II (BPII) Control (C) ANOVA P Bonferroni post hoc test Cohen’s D
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)     BPI vs C BPII vs C BPI vs BPII
Claeson-Dahl1 N = 57 N = 42 N = 84       
Learning 46.9 (11.0) 47.2 (12.1) 49.3 (10.3) 1.04 0.35     
Retention 48.0(12.8) 44.0 (12.5) 48.0 (10.4) 1.97 0.14     
Recognition 9.6 (0.8) 9.7 (0.7) 9.8 (0.6) 1.19 0.31     
Colour-Word2 N = 60 N = 40 N = 82       
Colours 8.7 (3.5) 9.1 (2.2) 9.8 (2.3) 2.66 0.072     
Colour names 9.7 (2.8) 10.5 (1.9) 10.1 (2.5) 1.28 0.28     
Inhibition 9.6 (3.7) 9.9 (2.6) 11.7 (2.5) 9.70 <0.001 BPI, BPII < C 0.54 0.55 0.09
Inhibition and set-shifting 9.6 (3.4) 10.1 (2.7) 11.3 (2.6) 6.73 0.002 BPI < C 0.56 0.45 0.16
Design Fluency2 N = 65 N = 40 N = 84       
Draw designs 11.1 (3.2) 11.3 (2.4) 11.7 (2.7) 0.97 0.38     
Connect the dots 11.1 (3.0) 11.2 (3.0) 11.5 (2.3) 0.48 0.62     
Set-shifting 10.9 (2.7) 11.5 (2.7) 13.1 (2.7) 12.87 <0.001 BPI, BPII < C 0.81 0.59 0.22
Rey Complex Figure 3 N = 60 N = 42 N = 80       
Copy score 33.6 (2.7) 32.7 (3.1) 32.7 (3.1) 0.28 0.76     
Time to draw figure 221.8 (140.3) 199.6 (101.3) 159.7 (71.6) 6.35 0.002 BPI > C 0.56 0.45 0.18
Immediate recall 41.8 (14.0) 44.4 (15.0) 48.4 (12.9) 4.94 0.008 BPI < C 0.49 0.29 0.18
30 minute recall 43.4 (14.8) 43.0 (14.2) 46.9 (13.2) 2.24 0.11     
Recognition 43.4 (11.5) 44.5 (13.5) 50.2 (11.3) 6.84 0.001 BPI, BPII < C 0.60 0.46 0.08
Tower4 N = 58 N = 35 N = 56       
Total score 10.5 (3.6) 11.1 (3.3) 11.9 (2.4) 3.22 0.043 BPI < C 0.46 0.28 0.17
Rule violations 1.3 (3.0) 1.2 (4.1) 0.3 (0.7) 2.44 0.091     
Time first move 9.0 (3.5) 8.5 (2.3) 10.6 (2.8) 7.01 0.001 BPI, BPII < C 0.50 0.82 −0.17
Time per move 7.6 (3.6) 8.5 (2.7) 10.3 (2.3) 13.36 <0.001 BPI, BPII < C 0.89 0.72 0.28
Move accuracy 11.4 (3.3) 10.6 (2.6) 10.3 (2.0) 2.33 0.10     
TMT2 N = 65 N = 41 N = 85       
Visual Scanning 10.5 (2.9) 11.1 (1.8) 10.8 (2.3) 0.85 0.43     
Number Sequencing 8.8 (3.6) 10.0 (2.8) 11.5 (2.4) 15.18 <0.001 BP, BPII < C 0.88 0.58 0.37
Letter Sequencing 9.3 (3.1) 9.8 (2.8) 11.1 (2.7) 7.72 0.001 BPI < C 0.62 0.47 0.17
Number-Letter Switching 9.1 (3.0) 9.4 (2.9) 11.6 (1.6) 22.99 <0.001 BPI, BPII < C 1.04 0.94 0.10
Motor Speed 11.4 (2.2) 11.6 (2.4) 11.8 (1.6) 0.92 0.40     
Verbal Fluency2 N = 65 N = 43 N = 83       
Phonetic 12.0 (4.6) 12.4 (4.0) 13.7 (3.3) 3.88 0.022 BPI < C 0.42 0.35 0.09
Semantic 12.3 (4.4) 12.4 (4.0) 16.0 (3.2) 20.72 <0.001 BPI, BPII < C 0.96 0.99 0.02
Set-shifting 10.9 (3.6) 11.5 (3.1) 13.7 (3.4) 12.98 <0.001 BPI, BPII < C 0.91 0.68 0.18
  1. 1Mean scores are t-scores for learning and retention and raw scores for recognition.
  2. 2Mean scores are demographics corrected standard scores.
  3. 3Mean scores are raw scores for copy score and time to draw figure and t-scores for recall and recognition variables.
  4. 4Mean scores are demographics corrected standard scores except rule violations, which is a raw score.