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Table 2 Association of socioeconomic and clinical characteristics and psychological distress among TB patients in 42 clinics, South Africa, 2011

From: Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa

  K-10 (28 or more) K-10 (16 or more)
  Crude OR Adjusted OR Crude OR Adjusted OR
Socio-demographics (95 % CI)a (95 % CI)a,b (95 % CI)a (95 % CI)a,c
Age
18-30 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
31-44 1.16 (1.01-1.33)* 1.20 (1.03-1.40)* 1.17 (1.00-1.37) 1.04 (0.86-1.26)
45 or more 1.46 (1.24-1.71)*** 1.52 (1.24-1.85)*** 1.57 (1.28-1.93)*** 1.30 (1.00-1.69)*
Gender
Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Male 1.07 (0.95-1.21) 1.06 (0.92-1.21) 0.96 (083–1.11) 0.90 (0.75-1.07)
Marital status
Not married 1.00 1.00 1.00 ---
Married/cohabitating 0.84 (0.72-0.98)* 0.74 (0.62-0.87)*** 0.85 (0.71-1.01)  
Separated/divorced/widowed 1.17 (0.90-1.51) 1.05 (0.36-3.91) 1.37 (0.97-1.93)  
Education
Grade 7 or less 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Grade 8-11 0.72 (0.62-0.83)*** 0.77 (0.65-0.91)** 0.72 (0.59-0.87)*** 0.78 (0.62-0.99)*
Grade 12 or more 0.73 (0.62-0.86)*** 0.85 (0.70-1.02) 0.49 (0.40-0.59)*** 0.55 (0.42-0.71)***
Poverty
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 1.46 (1.27-1.68)*** 1.39 (1.20-1.62)*** 1.23 (1.05-1.43)** 1.07 (0.86-1.33)
Poverty high 2.14 (1.78-2.56)*** 1.90 (1.57-2.31)*** 2.74 (2.11-3.56)*** 2.02 (1.50-2.70)***
Health characteristics
New TB patient 1.00 --- 1.00 1.00
Retreatment TB patient 1.04 (0.84-1.11)   1.27 (1.06-1.52)** 1.19 (0.96-1.48)
TB/HIV co-infected 1.09 (0.96-1.24) --- 1.39 (1.20-1.62)*** 1.44 (1.19-1.74)***
Partner HIV positive vs. negative or unknown 1.11 (0.97-1.28) --- 1.28 (1.08-1.53)** 1.14 (0.93-1.41)
Daily/almost daily tobacco use 1.26 (1.09-1.45)** 1.06 (0.89-1.25) 1.01 (0.84-1.21) ---
Hazardous or harmful alcohol use 1.05 (0.91-1.21) --- 1.33 (1.11-1.59)** 1.05 (0.83-1.31)
Adherence
Non-ART adherence 1.22 (0.94-1.59) --- 1.84 (0.70-4.80) ---
TB non-adherence 0.92 (0.79-1.07) --- 0.90 (0.75-1.07) ---
  1. a Using “enter” LR selection of variables.
  2. b Hosmer and Lemeshow Chi-square 12.97, df 8, 0.113; Cox and Snell R2 0.02; Nagelkerke R2 0.03.
  3. c Hosmer and Lemeshow Chi-square 3.47, df 8, 0.902; Cox and Snell R2 0.03; Nagelkerke R2 0.04.
  4. * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001.