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Table 1 Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals.

From: Depression symptoms and cognitive function among individuals with advanced HIV infection initiating HAART in Uganda

Characteristic HIV Positive N = 102 HIV Negative N = 25 p-value1
Age, years (mean, SD) 34.2 (6.23) 30.3 (3.99) .004
Female, n (%) 74 (72.6%) 10 (40.0%) .004
Education, years (mean, SD) 9.1 (4.3) 10.4 (4.2) .207
CD4 cell count (mean, SD) 130 (69.5) N/A .654
Plasma HIV RNA, log-10 copies/mL (mean, SD) 4.9 (0.87) N/A .672
CES-D score (mean, SD) 18.1 (11.4) 9.1 (9.0) < .001
Karnofsky Score 84 (8.5) 98 (4.1) 0.001
Prevalence of depression symptoms
   Baseline (HIV+ = 102 HIV- = 25) 55 (53.9%) 7 (28.0%) .021
   3-month (HIV+ = 95 HIV- = 23) 34 (36.0%) 3 (13.0%) .008
   6-month (HIV+ = 93 HIV- = 21) 28 (30.0%) 5 (24.0%) .206
IHDS score (mean, SD) 9.44 (1.8) 11.10 (0.8) < .001
Prevalence of cognitive impairment
   Baseline -do- 70 (68.6%) 4 (16.0%) < .0012
   3-month -do- 34 (35.8%) 5 (21.7%)  
   6-month -do- 28 (30.1%) 9 (42.8%)  
Dual prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment
   Baseline -do- 40 (39.2%) 1 (4.0%) .0132
   3-month -do- 34 (35.8%) 1 (4.0%)  
   6-month -do- 28 (30.1%) 2 (9.5%)  
  1. 1Differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals were made using Student t-test (continuous measures) or Fisher's exact test (binary measures) unless otherwise noted.
  2. 2Differences in prevalence measures were assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for age and gender.